Directions (Q. 1-10): Read the following passage carefully and answer the questions given below it. The Constitution of India (Article 19) gives the right to all citizens to “to move freely throughout the territory of India; to reside and settle in any part of the territory of India”. Which leads two main types of migration: first, internal migration, i.e. migration within one country, and secondly international migration, which means the movement from one country to another. The reasons for migration can be divided into two main aspects, the so-called “push” and “pull” factors. Push factors are those in their old place which force people to move. Pull factors are factors in the target country which encourage people to move; these include peace and safety, a chance of a better job, better education, social security, abetter standard of living in general as well as political and religious freedom. Since the 1830s, international migration from India under British rule comprised largely of unskilled workers from poorer socio-economic groups who went to other colonized countries. Between 1834 and 1937, nearly 30 million people left India and nearly four-fifths returned. Post-Independence, migrants came from richer socio-economic groups, from wealthier parts of the country and, with the exception of the large migration to the Middle East, went industrialized. The migrant stream to the United States in particular has been the most highly educated, both compared to other immigrants into the US, as well as to other Indian migrant streams abroad. Since the 1990s, increasing numbers of skilled emigrants from India have also been moving to Australia, Canada, New Zealand and Singapore. Migration of persons within national borders is far greater in magnitude than migration across international borders and has enormous potential to contribute to economic prosperity, social cohesion and urban diversity. Internal migration is an essential and inevitable component of the economic and social life of the country, given regional imbalances and labour shortages, and safe migration should be promoted to maximize its benefits. However, in the absence of a coherent policy framework and strategy, migration imposes heavy costs on human development through poor labour arrangements and working conditions of migrants, and obstacles in their access to shelter, education, healthcare and food. Migrants constitute a ‘floating’ and invisible population, alternating between source and destination areas and remaining on the periphery of society. In India, internal migration has been accorded very low priority by the government, and policies of the Indian state have largely failed in providing any form of legal or social protection to this vulnerable group.
1. What's the main difference between push and pull factors of migration ?
1) Push factors are conditions that drives people to leave their homes, while pull factors attracts people to a new area.
2) Push or pull factors that made your family happy.
3) Push means a new home in a different state, while pull means influence people to shift in new home.
4) Push and pull factors are closely interrelated.
5) None of these
2. Most of the highly educated group of India has been migrated in which of the following country as given in the passage?
1) China and U.S.A. 2) Australia and Singapore 3) Canada and New Zealand 4) Both 2 and 3 5) None of these
3. As given in the passage which type of migration does occur frequently ?
1) Internal migration 2) International migration 3) Step migration 4) Impelled migration 5) None of these
4. What is the main reason behind internal migration?
1) Various social, economic or political reasons.
2) This may be due to marriage for work and moved with household.
3) For higher education 4) For expansion of business 5) None of these
5. Which of the following is true in the context of the passage ?
1) The maximum migration takes place in the Eastern countries.
2) International migration is far greater than internal migration.
3) Government of India is against brain drain.
4) Migrants only came from richer socio-economic groups.
5) None of these
Direction (6- 8) : Choose the word which is MOST SIMILAR in meaning to the word printed in bold as used in the passage.
1) Sure 2) Escapable 3) Fortuitous 4) Unavoidable 5) Settled
1) Volatile 2) Fickle 3) Sunk 4) Submerged 5) Flighty
1) Ordinary 2) Common 3) Massive 4) Escapable 5) Irrational
Direction : (9 - 10) :Choose the word which is MOST OPPOSITE in meaning of the word printed in bold as given below-
1) Exposed 2) Accessible 3) Sensitive 4) Buoyant 5) Safe
1) Obscure 2) Comprehensible 3) Guarded 4) Disorderly 5) Logical
1.1 , 2.4 , 3.1, 4.2 , 5.5 , 6.4, 7.1 , 8.3, 9.5 , 10.1