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1.  Which among the following chronology is correct regarding four 'samvatas' ?
a
  Gupta-Gregorian-Hizri-Saka
b
 Gregorian-Saka-Hizri-Gupta
c
 Saka-Gregorian-Hizri-Gupta
d
 Hizri-Gupta-Gregorian-Saka
Answer & Explanation
Answer : Option A
Explanation :
Samvat is any of the various Hindu calendars. In India, there are several calendars in use. The Saka Samvat is associated with 78 A.D; Gupta Samvat with 320 A.D; and Hijri Samvat with 622 A.D. The first year of Hijri era was the Islamic year beginning in AD 622 during which the emigration of Muhammad from Mecca to Medina, known as the Hijra, occurred. The Gregorian calendar, also called the Western calendar and the Christian calendar, is the internationally accepted civil calendar. It was introduced by Pope Gregory XIII, after whom the calendar was named, by a decree signed on 24 February, 1582.
2.  The home of Gargi, Maitrey, and kapila was at
a
  Vidisha
b
 Ujjain
c
 Pataliputra
d
 Mithila
Answer & Explanation
Answer : Option D
Explanation :
The name 'Mithila' goes back to Puranic times. It occurs in the Mahabharata and in Pali literature. According to the Puranic tradition the name has been derived from that of Mithi (son of Nimi) King of Ayodhya and grandson of Manu who founded a kingdom which was called Mithila after him. It is associated with Valmiki, Ashtavakra, Yajnavalkya, Udayana, Mahavira, Kanada, Jaimini and Kapila as well as the women philosophers, such as, Gargi, Maitreyi, Bharati and Katyayani. After the era of the Ramayana it is said that the three seats of culture in Vedic period Kosala, Kasi and Videha merged to form the Vajjians confederacy and the centre of political gravity shifted from Mithila to Vaishali.
3.  Which area of India was known as Avantika in ancient times ?
a
  Avadh
b
 Ruhelkhand
c
 Bundelkhand
d
 Malwa
Answer & Explanation
Answer : Option D
Explanation :
Ujjain (Avanti, Avantikapuri), is an ancient city of Malwa region in central India, on the eastern bank of the Kshipra River, today part of the state of Madhya Pradesh. Avanti with its capital at Ujjaini, is mentioned in Buddhist literature as one of the four great powers along with Vatsa, Kosala and Magadha.
4.  The Social System of the Harappans was :
a
  Fairly egalitarian
b
 Slave-Labour based
c
 Colour (Varna) based
d
 Caste based
Answer & Explanation
Answer : Option A
Explanation :
The archaeological record of the Indus civilization provides practically no evidence of armies, kings, slaves, social conflict, prisons, and other oft-negative traits that we traditionally associated with early civilizations. If there were neither slaves nor kings, a more egalitarian system of governance may have been practiced. Besides, compared to other ancient civilizations the houses were of nearly equal size indicating a more egalitarian social structure i.e. The Social System of the Harappans was fairly egalitarian.
5.  Which of the following Vedas provides information about the civilisation of the Early Vedic Age?
a
  Rig-veda
b
 Yajur-veda
c
 Atharva-veda
d
 Sama-veda
Answer & Explanation
Answer : Option A
Explanation :
The Vedic period (or Vedic age) was a period in history during which the Vedas, the oldest scriptures of Hinduism, were composed. The time span of the period is uncertain. Philological and linguistic evidence indicates that the Rig Veda, the oldest of the Vedas, was composed roughly between 1700 and 1100 BCE, also referred to as the early Vedic period. It is an important source of information on the Vedic religion and their Gods as well as presents a detailed account of the life of the people at that time.
6.  The university which became famous in the post-Gupta Era was :
a
  Kanchi
b
 Taxila
c
 Nalanda
d
 Vallabhi
Answer & Explanation
Answer : Option C
Explanation :
Nalanda was an ancient centre of higher learning in Bihar, which was a Buddhist centre of learning from the fifth or sixth century A.D. to 1197 CE. Nalanda flourished between the reign of the Sakraditya (whose identity is uncertain and who might have been either Kumara Gupta I or Kumara Gupta II) and 1197 A.D, supported by patronage from the Hindu Gupta rulers as well as Buddhist emperors like Harsha and later emperors from the Pala Empire.
7.  Banabhatta was the court poet of which emperor ?
a
  Vikramaditya
b
 Kumaragupta
c
 Harshavardhana
d
 Kanishka
Answer & Explanation
Answer : Option C
Explanation :
Banabhatta was a Sanskrit scholar and poet of India. He was the Asthana Kavi in the court of King Harshavardhana, who reigned in the years 606' 647 CE in north India. Bana's principal works include a biography of Harsha, the Harshacharita and one of the world's earliest novels, Kadambari. The other works attributed to him is the Parvatiparinaya.
8.  The first Indian ruler, who established the supremacy of Indian Navy in the Arabian Sea was :
a
  Rajaraja I
b
 Rajendra I
c
 Rajadhiraja I
d
 Kulottunga I
Answer & Explanation
Answer : Option A
Explanation :
Rajaraja Chola I created a powerful standing army and a considerable navy, which achieved even greater success under his son Rajendra Chola I. One of the last conquests of Rajaraja was the naval conquest of the 'old islands of the sea numbering 12,000', the Maldives. Chola Navy also had played a major role in the invasion of Lanka.
9.  Which statement on the Harappan Civilisation is correct?
a
  Horse sacrifice was known to them.
b
 Cow was sacred to them.
c
 'Pashupati' was venerated by them.
d
 The culture was not generally static.
Answer & Explanation
Answer : Option D
Explanation :
Potteries of the Harappan Civilization bring out the gradual evolutionary trend in the culture. It is on the basis of different types of potteries and ceramic art from found over the different stages of the civilization, it can be said that Harappan culture was not static and did not disappear suddenly. While showing signs of decay, in course of time it rejuvenated itself by reviving some of the earlier ceramic traditions and evolving new ones in the transitional phase.
10.  The First Tirthankara of the Jains was :
a
  Arishtanemi
b
 Parshvanath
c
 Ajitanath
d
 Rishabha
Answer & Explanation
Answer : Option D
Explanation :
In Jainism, Rishabh was the first of the 24 Tirthankaras who founded the Ikshavaku dynasty and was the first Tirthankara of the present age. Because of this, he was called Adinath. He is mentioned in the Hindu text of the Bhagavata Purana as an avatar of Vishnu. In Jainism, a Tirthankara is a human being who helps in achieving liberation and enlightenment as an 'Arihant' by destroying all of their soul constraining (ghati) karmas, became a role-model and leader for those seeking spiritual guidance.
11.  The great silk-route to the Indians was opened by :
a
  Kanishka
b
 Ashoka
c
 Harsha
d
 Fa-Hien
Answer & Explanation
Answer : Option A
Explanation :
The Silk Road or Silk Route is a modern term referring to a historical network of interlinking trade routes across the Afro-Eurasian landmass that connected East, South, and Western Asia with the Mediterranean and European world, as well as parts of North and East Africa. Extending 6,500 km, the Silk Road gets its name from the lucrative Chinese silk trade along it, which began during the Han Dynasty (206 BC ' 220 AD). The Kushan empire incorporated Samarkand, Bokhara and Fergana, bordering on the Silk Road towns of Kashgar, Yarkand and Khotan. The main route from Central Asia into India, connecting India with the Silk Roads and the Mediterranean, ran through Gandhara. Kanishka sought to promote the thriving trade with the Silk Road centres like Kashgar and beyond, sending an envoy to Ttajan in Rome.
12.  The rulers of which dynasty started the practice of granting tax-free villages to Brahmanas and Buddhist Monks?
a
  Satavahanas
b
 Mauryas
c
 Guptas
d
 Cholas
Answer & Explanation
Answer : Option A
Explanation :
Land grants formed an important feature of the Satavahana rural administration. Inscriptions show that the Satavahanas started the practice of granting fiscal and administrative immunities to Brahmins and Buddhist monks. Earlier, the grants to individuals were temporary but later grants to religious beneficiaries were permanent. Perhaps the earliest epigraphic grant of land is found in the Nanaghat Cave Inscription of naganika, who bestowed villages (grama) on priests for officiating at Vedic sacrifices, but it does not speak of any concessions in this context. These appear first in grants made by Gautamiputra Satakarni in the first quarter of the second century A.D.
13.  The most important text of vedic mathematics is :
a
  Satapatha Brahman
b
 Atharva Veda
c
 Sulva Sutras
d
 Chhandogya Upanishad
Answer & Explanation
Answer : Option C
Explanation :
The Shulba Sutras are sutra texts belonging to the Strauta ritual and containing geometry related to firealtar construction. They are part of the larger corpus of texts called the Shrauta Sutras, considered to be appendices to the Vedas. They are the only sources of knowledge of Indian mathematics from the Vedic period. The four major Shulba Sutras, which are mathematically the most significant, are those composed by Baudhayana, Manava, Apastamba and Katyayana.
14.  Yavanika or curtain was introduced in Indian theatre by which of the following?
a
  Shakas
b
 Parthians
c
 Greeks
d
 Kushans
Answer & Explanation
Answer : Option C
Explanation :
The most interesting term in Indian drama with Greek connotation is yavanika, which means a stage curtain. For the first time in Panini's grammar, there is a reference to Yavana and Yavanani writing. However, the theory is not only erroneous but ridiculous because there is no curtain in the Greek drama and also there is no word 'yavanika' in Sanskrit language. There is Yavani meaning Greek woman.
15.  Who started the Saka Era which is still used by the Government of India?
a
  Kanishka
b
 Vikramaditya
c
 Samudra Gupta
d
 Asoka
Answer & Explanation
Answer : Option A
Explanation :
The mightiest of the Kushan rulers in India was Kanishka. He was in power from 78 AD to 120 AD. It was Kanishka who initiated the Saka Era in 78 AD. Through inheritance and conquest, Kanishka's kingdom covered an area extending from Bukhara (now in Uzbekistan) in the west to Patna in the Ganges Valley in the east, and from the Pamirs (now in Tajikistan) in the north to central India in the south. His capital was Purushpura (Peshawar).
16.  What inspired the paintings of janta ?
a
  Compassionate Buddha
b
 Radha-Krishan Leela
c
 Jain Thirthankaras
d
 Mahabharata encounters
Answer & Explanation
Answer : Option A
Explanation :
The Ajanta Caves in Aurangabad district of Maharashtra, India are 30 rock-cut cave monuments which date from the 2nd century BCE to the 600 CE. The caves include paintings and sculptures considered to be masterpieces of Buddhist religious art (which depict the Jataka tales) as well as frescos which are reminiscent of the Sigiriya paintings in Sri Lanka. The Ajanta cave paintings depict the life of Gautam Buddha.
17.  Who among the following was the first to invade India ?
a
  Xerxes
b
 Alexander
c
 Darius-I
d
 Seleucus
Answer & Explanation
Answer : Option C
Explanation :
In about 518 BCE, the Persians invaded India. They were led by King Darius I, who conquered the Indus Valley and the area that is now the state of Punjab. Darius-I was successful in maintaining power, and his descendants continued to rule the area when he died. Darius-I also began to collect a tribute tax, and spread news of India's many natural resources to Europe.
18.  Which among the following is the oldest dynasty ?
a
  Maurya
b
 Gupta
c
 Kushan
d
 Kanva
Answer & Explanation
Answer : Option A
Explanation :
The Maurya Empire was a geographically extensive Iron Age historical power in ancient India, ruled by the Mauryan dynasty from 321 to 185 BC. Originating from the kingdom of Magadha in the IndoGangetic plains (modern Bihar, eastern Uttar Pradesh and Bengal) in the eastern side of the Indian subcontinent, the empire had its capital city at Pataliputra (modern Patna). The Empire was founded in 322 BC by Chandragupta Maurya. The Gupta Empire was an ancient Indian empire which existed from approximately 320 to 550 CE and covered much of the Indian Subcontinent. The Kushan Empire was originally formed in the early 1st century AD under Kujula Kadphises in the territories of ancient Bactria around the Oxus River (Amu Darya), and later based near Kabul, Afghanistan. The Kanva dynasty was a Brahman dynasty founded by Vasudeva Kanva, the minister of Devabhuti, the last Sunga king in 75 BCE
19.  With which of the following is the classic 'Jivaka Chintamani' in Tamil associated ?
a
  Jainism
b
 Buddhism
c
 Hinduism
d
 Christianity
Answer & Explanation
Answer : Option A
Explanation :
Jivaka Chintamani (fabulous gem) is a classical epic poem, considered one of the five great Tamil epics according to later Tamil literary tradition, the others being Manimegalai, Silappadikaram, Valayapathi and Kundalakesi. It was composed during the 10th century CE by Thiruthakka Thevar, a Jain monk. It narrates the romantic exploits of Jeevaka and throws light on arts of music and dance of the era. It is reputed to have been the model for Kamba Ramayanam. The epic is based on Sanskrit original and contains the exposition of Jain doctrines and beliefs.
20.  Where did Lord Buddha breathe his last?
a
  Rajgir
b
 Bodh Gaya
c
 Sarnath
d
 Kushinagar
Answer & Explanation
Answer : Option D
Explanation :
Kushinagar is a town and a nagar panchayat in Kushinagar district in the Indian state of Uttar Pradesh. It is an important Buddhist pilgrimage site, where Gautama Buddha is thought to have attained Parinirvana after his death. It is one of the most important four holy sites for Buddhists. At this location, near the Hiranyavati River, Gautama Buddha attained Parinirvana (or 'Final Nirvana') after falling ill from eating a meal of a species of mushroom, or possibly pork.
21.  Who were the first kings to issue gold coins in India?
a
  Mauryas
b
 Indo-Greeks
c
 Guptas
d
 Kushans
Answer & Explanation
Answer : Option B
Explanation :
The Indo-Greek kings were the first to issue gold coins in India and their coins were special in the sense that each king had his own distinctive coins by which he could be definitely identified. The names of at least thirty Bactrian kings are known with the help of numerous coins, and they help in the reconstruction of the history of the kings. The coins carry legends in Greek and also in Kharosthi and Brahmi.
22.  Where is Brihadeshwar Temple situated ?
a
  Kanchi
b
 Madurai
c
 Shri Shailan
d
 Tanjore
Answer & Explanation
Answer : Option D
Explanation :
The Brihadeshwar Temple at Thanjavur (Tanjore) in the Indian state of Tamil Nadu, is a Hindu temple dedicated to Shiva and a brilliant example of the major heights achieved by Cholas in Tamil architecture. It is a tribute and a reflection of the power of its patron Raja Raja Chola I. It remains India's largest temple and is one of the greatest glories of Indian architecture. The temple is part of the UNESCO World Heritage Site 'Great Living Chola Temples'.
23.  In Tamil literature the glorious books 'Shilppadikaram and Manimekhalai' are related to
a
  Jainism
b
 Buddhism
c
 Hindusim
d
 Christianity
Answer & Explanation
Answer : Option B
Explanation :
Shilppadikaram is one of the five Great Epics according to later Tamil literary tradition, the others being Manimegalai, Civaka Cintamani, Valayapathi and Kundalakesi. The poet prince Ilango Adigal is credited with this work. He is reputed to be the brother of Senguttuvan from Chera dynasty. Ilango Adigal was a Buddhist monk and Silappadhikaram and Manimekalai are Buddhist epics. Manimekalai, a purely Buddhist work of the 3rd Sangam period in Tamil literature is the most supreme and famous among the Buddhist work done in Tamil. It is a work expounding the doctrines and propagating the values of Buddhism.It also talks about the Tamil Buddhists in the island. (Source: L. Basam Page No. 475)
24.  Who established Mahabalipuram?
a
  Pallava
b
 Pandya
c
 Chola
d
 Chalukya
Answer & Explanation
Answer : Option A
Explanation :
Mahabalipuram, derived from 'Mamallapuram' is the prior and colloquial name of a town in Kancheepuram district in the Indian state of Tamil Nadu, now officially called Mamallapuram. Mahabalipuram was a 7th century port city of the South Indian dynasty of the Pallavas near the city of Chennai in Tamil Nadu. The name Mamallapuram is believed to have been given after the Pallava king Narasimhavarman I, who took on the epithet Maha-malla (great wrestler), as the favourite sport of the Pallavas was wrestling. It has various historic monuments built largely between the 7th and the 9th centuries, and has been classified as a UNESCO World Heritage Site.
25.  The Saka era commencing from A.D. 78, was founded by
a
  Kanishka
b
 Asoka
c
 Chandragupta
d
 Vikramaditya
Answer & Explanation
Answer : Option A
Explanation :
The date of Kanishka's accession is disputed, ranging from 78 to 248. The generally accepted date of 78 is also the basis for an era presumably started by the Shakas and used in addition to the Gregorian calendar by the present-day Indian government.
26.  Ganhadra school of art came into existence in
a
  Hinayana sect
b
 Mahayana sect
c
 Vaishnava sect
d
 Shaiva sect
Answer & Explanation
Answer : Option B
Explanation :
The Gandhara school of art is mainly related to Mahayana Buddhism which encouraged image worship. The Kushan kings, particularly Kanishka, encouraged the Gandhara artists. The Gandhara sculptures have been found in the ruins of Taxila and in various ancient sites in Afghanistan and in West Pakistan. They consist mostly of the images of the Buddha and relief sculptures presenting scenes from Buddhist texts. A number of Bodhisattva figures were carved out. A figure of Gandhara shows the first sermon in the deer park and the death of the Buddha. In all these figures there is a realistic treatment of the body although it is draped. In these sculptures there is a tendency to mould the human body in a realistic manner paying great attention to accuracy and physical details particularly in the presentation of muscles, moustaches, etc. Also the representation of the thick bold fold lines forms a distinct characteristic. Thus the Gandhara sculptures offer a striking contrast to what has been discovered elsewhere in India.
27.  Out of the following remains excavated in Indus Valley, which one indicates the commercial and economic development ?
a
  The Pottery
b
 Seals
c
 The boats
d
 The houses
Answer & Explanation
Answer : Option B
Explanation :
The seals of the Indus Valley Civilization have been one of the major sources for information about the period. Apart from giving plethora of informations about the social and religious life of the period, they give insight into the economic activities. The economy of the Indus civilization was based on a highly organized agriculture, supplemented by an active commerce, probably connected to that of the ancient civilizations of Mesopotamia. Trade amongst the civilizations is suggested by the finding of hundreds of small seals, supposedly produced by the Indus peoples, at the excavation sites of ancient Mesopotamian cities that were existent around the same time. Some of the seals mention the rulers of different countries.
28.  Who, according to the Buddhists, is believed to be the next incarnation of Gautam Buddha ?
a
  Atreya
b
 Maitreya
c
 Nagarjuna
d
 Kalki
Answer & Explanation
Answer : Option B
Explanation :
Maitreya is foretold as a future Buddha of this world in Buddhist eschatology. In some Buddhist literature, such as the Amitabha Sutra and the Lotus Sutra, he or she is referred to as Ajita Bodhisattva. Maitreya is a bodhisattva who in the Buddhist tradition is to appear on Earth, achieve complete enlightenment, and teach the pure dharma. According to scriptures, Maitreya will be a successor of the historic Sakyamuni Buddha.
29.  Who among the following were contemporaries of Kanishka ?
a
  Kamban, Banabhatta, Asvagosha
b
 Nagarjuna, Asvagosha, Vasumitra
c
 Asvagosha, Kalidasa, Banabhatta
d
 Kalidasa, Kamban, Va-sumitra
Answer & Explanation
Answer : Option B
Explanation :
The eminent Buddhist writers Nagarjuna, Asvaghosha, Parsva and Vasumitra flourished at the court of Kanishka. Nagarjuna was the great exponent of Mahayana doctrine and Asvaghosha, a multifaceted personality, was known as a poet, musician, scholar and zealous Buddhist monk. Charaka, the most celebrated authority on Ayurveda was the court physician of Kanishka and Mathara, a politician of rare merit, was his minister. Vasumitra presided over the fourth Buddhist Council.
30.  Which rulers built the Ellora temples?
a
  Chalukya
b
 Sunga
c
 Rashtrakuta
d
 Pallava
Answer & Explanation
Answer : Option C
Explanation :
These religious establishments could have received royal patronage from various dynasties, even though inscriptional evidences are lacking for most of them. The only definite inscriptional evidence is that of Rashtrakuta Dantidurga (c. 753-57 A.D.) The majority of the Brahmanical establishments and the remaining Buddhist ones can be attributed to the Rashtrakuta times which indicate the religious tolerance of the contemporary period. The Jaina caves definitely postdate the Rashtrakutas as indicated by the style of execution and fragmentary inscriptions. This region was under the control of Kalyani Chalukyas and Yadavas of Deogiri (Daulatabad) during this period.
31.  Who amongst the following also had the name 'Devanama Piyadassi'?
a
  Mauryan King Ashoka
b
 Mauryan King Chandra-gupta Maurya
c
 Gautam Buddha
d
 Bhagwan Mahavira
Answer & Explanation
Answer : Option A
Explanation :
The Edicts of Ashoka are a collection of 33 inscriptions on the Pillars of Ashoka, as well as boulders and cave walls, made by the Emperor Ashoka of the Mauryan dynasty during his reign from 269 BCE to 231 BCE. These inscriptions are dispersed throughout the areas of modern-day Bangladesh, India, Nepal and Pakistan and represent the first tangible evidence of Buddhism. In these inscriptions, Ashoka refers to himself as 'Beloved of the Gods' and 'King Priya-darshi.' The identification of King Priya-darshi with Ashoka was confirmed by an inscription discovered in 1915 by C. Beadon at Maski, the village in Raichur district of Karnataka. Another minor rock edict is found at the village Gujarra in Datia district of Madhya Pradesh. This also shows the Name 'Asoka' in addition to usual 'Devanam Piyadasi'.
32.  The subject-matter of Ajanta Paintings pertains to
a
  Jainism
b
 Buddhism
c
 Vaishnavism
d
 Shaivism
Answer & Explanation
Answer : Option B
Explanation :
The Ajanta Caves are the treasure house of delicate paintings that portray scenes from Jataka tales and from the life of Lord Buddha. Celebrated for its archaic wonder and laced with the series of carved artistry, Ajanta Cave paintings echo the quality of Indian creativity in perhaps the subtlest way. In the Ajanta wall-paintings, there is a profound modification from the art of early Buddhism. The Ajanta paintings stresses on religious romanticism with lyric quality, a reflection of the view that every aspect of life has an equal value in the spiritual sense and as an aspect of the divine.
33.  Which of the following Craftsmanship was not practised by the Aryans ?
a
  Pottery
b
 Jewellery
c
 Carpentry
d
 Blacksmith
Answer & Explanation
Answer : Option D
Explanation :
Iron was a metal unknown to the Aryans during the early Vedic age. The advent of iron is generally associated with the late or post-Vedic ages. So blacksmith did not exist during this period.
34.  Mohammed-bin-Qasim conquered Sind in the year
a
  712 A.D.
b
 812 A.D.
c
 912 A.D.
d
 1012 A.D.
Answer & Explanation
Answer : Option A
Explanation :
The Arab conquest of Sindh by Muhammad Bin Qasim in 712 AD gave the Muslims a firm foothold on the sub-continent. Qasim's conquest of Sindh and Punjab laid the foundations of Islamic rule in the Indian subcontinent. The description of Hiuen Tsang, a Chinese historian, leaves no doubt that the social and economic restrictions inherent in the caste differentiations of Hindu society had however, gradually sapped the inner vitality of the social system and Sindh fell without much resistance before the Muslim armies.
35.  The words 'Satyameva Jayate' in the State Emblem of India were taken from
a
  Upanishads
b
 Sama Veda
c
 Rig Veda
d
 Ramayana
Answer & Explanation
Answer : Option A
Explanation :
'Satyameva Jayate' (Truth Alone Triumphs) is a mantra from the ancient Indian scripture Mundaka Upanishad. Upon independence of India, it was adopted as the national motto of India. It is inscribed in Devanagari script at the base of the national emblem. The emblem and words 'Satyameva Jayate' are inscribed on one side of all Indian currency. The emblem is an adaptation of the Lion Capital of Asoka which was erected around 250 BC at Sarnath, near Varanasi in the north Indian state of Uttar Pradesh.
36.  The earliest city discovered in India was
a
  Harappa
b
 Punjab
c
 Mohenjo Daro
d
 Sindh
Answer & Explanation
Answer : Option A
Explanation :
The ruins of Harrappa were first described in 1842 by Charles Masson in his Narrative of Various Journeys in Balochistan, Afghanistan, and the Punjab,where locals talked of an ancient city extending thirteen cosses (about 25 miles), but no archaeological interest would attach to this for nearly a century. In 1856, General Alexander Cunningham, later director general of the archeological survey of northern India, visited Harappa where the British engineers John and William Brunton were laying the East Indian Railway Company line connecting the cities of Karachi and Lahore. In 1872-75 Alexander Cunningham published the first Harappan seal (with an erroneous identification as Brahmi letters). It was half a century later, in 1912, that more Harappan seals were discovered by J. Fleet, prompting an excavation campaign under Sir John Hubert Marshall in 1921-22 and resulting in the discovery of the civilization at Harappa by Sir John Marshall, Rai Bahadur Daya Ram Sahni and Madho Sarup Vats, and at Mohenjo-daro by Rakhal Das Banerjee, E. J. H. MacKay, and Sir John Marshall.
37.  The famous rock-cut temple of kailasa is at
a
  Ajanta
b
 Badami
c
 Mahabalipuram
d
 Ellora
Answer & Explanation
Answer : Option D
Explanation :
Kailashnath Temple is a famous temple, one of the 34 monasteries and temples, extending over more than 2 km, that were dug side by side in the wall of a high basalt cliff in the complex located at Ellora, Maharashtra, India. Of these 34 monasteries and temples, the Kailasa (cave 16) is a remarkable example of Dravidian architecture on account of its striking proportion; elaborate workmanship architectural content and sculptural ornamentation of rock-cut architecture. It is designed to recall Mount Kailash, the abode of Lord Shiva. It is a megalith carved out of one single rock. It was built in the 8th century by the Rashtrakuta king Krishna I.
38.  Epigraphy means
a
  The study of coins
b
 The study of inscriptions
c
 The study of epics
d
 The study of geography
Answer & Explanation
Answer : Option B
Explanation :
Epigraphy is the study of inscriptions on rocks, pillars, temple walls, copper plates and other writing material. It is the study of inscriptions or epigraphs as writing; it is the science of identifying graphemes, clarifying their meanings, classifying their uses according to dates and cultural contexts, and drawing conclusions about the writing and the writers. It serves as primary documentary evidence to establish legal, socio-cultural, literary, archaeological, and historical antiquity on the basis of engravings.
39.  Which among the following has not been found in the excavation of Harappan sites ?
a
  Drains and well
b
 Fort
c
 Reservoirs
d
 Temple with Shikhar
Answer & Explanation
Answer : Option D
Explanation :
Sikhara, a Sanskrit word translating literally to 'mountain peak', refers to the rising tower in the Hindu temple architecture of North India. Sikhara over the sanctum sanctorum where the presiding deity is enshrined is the most prominent and visible part of a Hindu temple of North India. Sikhara was a major feature of the medieval times.
40.  Which among the following 'MATH' is related with Buddhism?
a
  Dakhma
b
 Chaitya
c
 Khangah
d
 Angeri
Answer & Explanation
Answer : Option B
Explanation :
A chaitya is a Buddhist or Jain shrine including a stupa. In modern texts on Indian architecture, the term chaitya-griha is often used to denote assembly or prayer hall that houses a stupa. Chaityas were probably constructed to hold large numbers of devotees and to provide shelter for them.
41.  Where has the world's largest monolithic statue of Buddha been installed ?
a
  Bamiyan
b
 Hyderabad
c
 Kandy
d
 Lhasa
Answer & Explanation
Answer : Option A
Explanation :
The Buddhas of Bamiyan were two 6th century monumental statues of standing buddha carved into the side of a cliff in the Bamyan valley in the Hazarajat region of central Afghanistan. They were dynamited and destroyed in March 2001 by the Taliban, on orders from leader Mullah Mohammed Omar, after the Taliban government declared that they were idols. On 8 September 2008 archeologists searching for a legendary 300-metre statue at the site of the already dynamited Buddhas announced the discovery of an unknown 19-metre (62-foot) reclining Buddha, a pose representing Buddha's passage into nirvana
42.  The Harappan Civilisation was discovered in the year :
a
  1935
b
 1942
c
 1901
d
 1922
Answer & Explanation
Answer : Option D
Explanation :
In 1872'75 Alexander Cunningham published the first Harappan seal (with an erroneous identification as Brahmi letters). It was half a century later, in 1912, that more Harappan seals were discovered by J. Fleet, prompting an excavation campaign under Sir John Hubert Marshall in 1921'22 and resulting in the discovery of the civilization at Harappa by Sir John Marshall, Rai Bahadur Daya Ram Sahni and Madho Sarup Vats, and at Mohenjo-daro by Rakhal Das Banerjee, E. J. H. MacKay, and Sir John Marshall.
43.  The title 'Indian Napolean' has been attached to
a
  Chandra Gupta Maurya
b
 Samudragupta
c
 Chandragupta-I
d
 Harshavardhana
Answer & Explanation
Answer : Option B
Explanation :
Samudragupta (335-375 AD) of the Gupta dynasty is known as the Napoleon of India. Historian A V Smith called him so because of his great military conquests known from the 'Prayag Prashati' written by his courtier and poet Harisena, who also describes him as the hero of a hundred battles. But some leading Indian historians criticise Smith and feel that Samudragupta was a far greater warrior than Napoleon, as the former never lost any battle.
44.  The 'Ajivikas' were a
a
  sect contemporary to the Buddha
b
 breakaway branch of the Buddhists
c
 sect founded by Charvaka
d
 sect founded by Shankaracharya
Answer & Explanation
Answer : Option A
Explanation :
Ajivika ('living' in Sanskrit) was a system of ancient Indian philosophy and an ascetic movement of the Mahajanapada period in the Indian subcontinent. Ajivika was primarily a heterodox Hindu (Nastika) or atheistic system. The Ajivikas may simply have been a more loosely-organized group of wandering ascetics (shramanas or sannyasins). One of their prominent leaders was Makkhali Gosal. Ajivikas are is thought to be contemporaneous to other early Hindu nastika philosophical schools of thought, such as Charvaka, Jainism and Buddhism, and may have preceded the latter two systems.
45.  The organic relationship between the ancient culture of the indus Valley and Hinduism of today is proved by the worship of
a
  Pashupati, Indra and the Mother Goddess
b
 Stones, trees and animals
c
 Vishnu and Lakshmi
d
 Siva and Sakti
Answer & Explanation
Answer : Option B
Explanation :
There has been evidence that the people of the Indus Valley Civilization believed in some form of animal and nature worship. The figure of deities on the seals indicates that they worshipped gods and goddesses in the human form. No major sculpture survives but for a bust thought to be of a major priest and the stunning bronze dancing girl. The Divine Mother appears to have been an important goddess, due to the countless terra-cotta statues of her that were found. It follows a school of thought that would become prevalent later as well, of the female energy being regarded as the source of all creation. What is most interesting is the existence of a male god which has been identified as a proto-type of an important God of the religion of Hinduism, lord Shiv. The fact that the same God is still worshipped today, and has been for the last five thousand years is one of the remarkable features of Indian culture. Even evidence of the Bhakti cult (loving devotion to a personal God) has been found at Indus Valley Civilization sites, and the Bhakti cult also has a large following even today. It can therefore be concluded that there is a close relationship between the beliefs of the Indus Valley Civilization and that of modern Hinduism.
46.  How was Burma (now Myanmar) known to ancient Indians ?
a
  Malayamandalam
b
 Yavadwipa
c
 Suvarnabhumi
d
 Suvarnadwipa
Answer & Explanation
Answer : Option C
Explanation :
Suvarnabhumi is a Sanskrit term meaning the Golden Land or Land of Gold , coined by the ancient Indians which refers broadly to Southeast Asian region across Gulf of Bengal and Eastern Indian Ocean Lower Burma, Lower Thailand, Lower Malay Peninsula, and Sumatra. Although it seems to cover vast region in Southeast Asia, it is generally accepted that the name Suvarnabhumi was first used to refer more specifically to Lower Burma. Another term which was used by the ancient Indians is Suvarnadvipa which means the Golden Peninsula/Island. Suvarnabhumi may have been used primarily as a vague general designation of an extensive region in Southeast Asia,but, over time, different parts of it came to be designated by the additional epithets of island, peninsula or city
47.  With whom is 'Junagarh Rock Inscription' associated ?
a
  Rudradaman
b
 Bimbisara
c
 Chandragupta II
d
 Gautamiputra Satakarni
Answer & Explanation
Answer : Option A
Explanation :
The Junagadh rock inscription, found in Junagadh, was carved under the orders of King Rudradaman, who had obtained the title of Mahakshatrapa. He was the grandson of the famous Mahakshatrapa Chastana and was a Saka ruler from the Western Kshatrapa dynasty. The inscription is a chronicle about the rebuilding of a dam named Urjayat around the lake Sudarshana. The dam lay in the region of Saurashtra and the closest town appears to have been a place called Girinagar. It was fed by the rivers Suvarnasikata and Palasini, along with other smaller streams. The dam was originally built by Vaishya Pushyagupta who was the governor of the region under Chandragupta Maurya. Conduits from the dam were later built under orders of his grandson; Emperor Asoka.
48.  Nalanda University was a great centre of learning, especially in
a
  Buddhism
b
 Jainism
c
 Vaishnavism
d
 Tantra
Answer & Explanation
Answer : Option A
Explanation :
Nalanda was an ancient centre of higher learning in Bihar, India. It was a Buddhist centre of learning from the fifth or sixth century CE to 1197 CE. Nalanda flourished between the reign of the Sakraditya (whose identity is uncertain and who might have been either Kumara Gupta-I or Kumara Gupta-II) and 1197 CE, supported by patronage from the Hindu Gupta rulers as well as Buddhist emperors like Harsha and later emperors from the Pala Empire.
49.  The Rathas of Mahabalipuram was built during the reign of the
a
  Palas
b
 Cholas
c
 Rashtrakutas
d
 Pallavas
Answer & Explanation
Answer : Option D
Explanation :
The city of Mahabalipuram was largely developed by the Pallava king Narasimhavarman I in the 7th century AD. The mandapa or pavilions and the rathas or shrines shaped as temple chariots are hewn from the granite rock face, while the famed Shore Temple, erected half a century later, is built from dressed stone. The Pancha Rathas shrines were carved during the reign of King Mahendravarman I and his son Narasimhavarman I. The purpose of their construction is not known, structures are not completed.
50.  Who is hailed as the 'God of Medicine' by the practitioners of Ayurveda ?
a
  Susruta
b
 Chyavana
c
 Dhanwantari
d
 Charaka
Answer & Explanation
Answer : Option C
Explanation :
Dhanvantri is an Avatar of Vishnu from the Hindu tradition. He appears in the Vedas and Puranas as the physician of the gods (devas), and the god of Ayurvedic medicine. It is common practice in Hinduism for worshipers to pray to Dhanvantri seeking his blessings for sound health for themselves and/or others. Dhanvantri is depicted as Vishnu with four hands, holding medical herbs in one hand and a pot containing rejuvenating nectar called amrita in another. The Puranas state that Dhanvantri emerged from the 'Ocean of Milk' and appeared with the pot of nectar during the story of the Samudra or Sagar manthan whilst the ocean was being churned by the devas and asuras, using the Mandara mountain and the serpent Vasuki.
51.  Which was the only Indus site with an artificial brick dockyard?
a
  Lothal
b
 Kalibangan
c
 Harappa
d
 Mohenjo Daro
Answer & Explanation
Answer : Option A
Explanation :
Lothal was one of the most prominent cities of the ancient Indus valley civilization. Located in Bhal region of the modern state of Gujarat and dating from 2400 BCE, it was discovered in 1954. Lothal was excavated from February 13, 1955 to May 19, 1960 by the Archaeological Survey of India (ASI). Lothal's dock'the world's earliest known, connected the city to an ancient course of the Sabarmati river on the trade route between Harappan cities in Sindh and the peninsula of Saurashtra when the surrounding Kutch desert of today was a part of the Arabian Sea.It was a vital and thriving trade centre in ancient times, with its trade of beads, gems and valuable ornaments reaching the far corners of West Asia and Africa.
52.  Which dynasty succeeded the Chalukyas in the Western India?
a
  Cholas
b
 Kakatiyas
c
 Pallavas
d
 Rashtrakutas
Answer & Explanation
Answer : Option D
Explanation :
The Chalukya dynasty was an Indian royal dynasty that ruled large parts of southern and central India between the 6th and the 12th centuries. The earliest dynasty, known as the 'Badami Chalukyas', ruled from Vatapi (modern Badami) from the middle of the 6th century. The Badami Chalukyas began to assert their independence at the decline of the Kadamba kingdom of Banavasi and rapidly rose to prominence during the reign of Pulakesin II. After the death of Pulakesin II, the Eastern Chalukyas became an independent kingdom in the eastern Deccan. They ruled from Vengi until about the 11th century. In the western Deccan, the rise of the Rashtrakutas in the middle of the 8th century eclipsed the Chalukyas of Badami before being revived by their descendants, the Western Chalukyas, in the late 10th century.
53.  Upto where did Chandragupta Maurya's empire extend in the north-west ?
a
  Ravi river
b
 Indus river
c
 Satluj river
d
 Hindukush range
Answer & Explanation
Answer : Option B
Explanation :
Prior to Chandragupta's consolidation of power, small regional kingdoms dominated the northwestern subcontinent, while the Nanda Dynasty dominated the middle and lower basin of the Ganges. After Chandragupta's conquests, the Maurya Empire extended from Bengal and Assam in the east, to Afghanistan and Balochistan, some part of the eastern and southeast Iran in the west, to Kashmir and Nepal in the north, and to the Deccan Plateau in the south. The vast empire extended from the Bay of Bengal in the east, to the Indus River in the west.
54.  Prince Ellara conquered Sri Lanka in the second century BC. With which of the following dynasties of Dravida ruler was he associated ?
a
  Chera
b
 Chola
c
 Pandya
d
 Pallava
Answer & Explanation
Answer : Option B
Explanation :
Elara (235 BC ' 161 BC), also known as Manu Needhi Cholan was a Chola king from the Chola Kingdom, in present day South India, who ruled Sri Lanka from 205 BC to 161 BC from the ancient capital of Anuradhapura. Often referred to as 'the Just King'. The Tamil name Elalan means, 'the one who rules the Ellai (boundary). Elara is a peculiar figure in the history of Sri Lanka and one with particular resonance given the ongoing ethnic strife in the country. Although he was an invader, he is often regarded as one of Sri Lanka's wisest and most just monarchs, as highlighted in the ancient Sinhalese chronicle Mahavamsa.
55.  Harshavardhana organised his religious assembly at
a
  Mathura
b
 Prayag
c
 Varanasi
d
 Tamralipt
Answer & Explanation
Answer : Option B
Explanation :
After the Kannauj Assembly was concluded, Hiuen-Tsang was making preparations to go to his home, but Harsha invited him to attend another Assembly at Prayag which he used to hold after ever five years on the confluence of Ganga and Yamuna. Five such assemblies had already taken place and this was the sixth Assembly in which Hiuen-Tsang was invited. This ceremony was attended by the kings of eighteen kingdoms and about 5, 00,000 people including Sramanas. Hercetics, Nigranthas, the poor, the orphans etc, attended this assembly. The Prayag Assembly is a glorious example of the generosity of Harshavardhana as he gave all his personal wealth and belongings in charity during the assembly.
56.  Which of the following domesticated animals was absent in the terracottas of the Indus civilisation ?
a
  Buffalo
b
 Sheep
c
 Cow
d
 Pig
Answer & Explanation
Answer : Option C
Explanation :
The Indus Valley Civilization made sculptures mainly in stone, metal and terra-cotta. Ranging in size from slightly larger than a human thumb to almost 30 cm. (one foot) in height, the anthropomorphic and animal terracotta figurines from Harappa and other Indus Civilization sites offer a rich reflection of some of the Harappan ideas about representing life in the Bronze Age. From the terracotta figurines, we come to know that the people of Harappa domesticated animals like oxen, buffaloes, pigs, goats and sheep. Camels and asses were used as means of transport. Dogs and cats were kept as pets. The humped bull was considered a great asset in the farming community.
57.  Which among the following is the sacred book of the Buddhists ?
a
  Upanishad
b
 Vedas
c
 Tripitaka
d
 Jatakas
Answer & Explanation
Answer : Option C
Explanation :
Tripitaka is a traditional term used by various Buddhist sects to describe their various canons of scriptures. As the name suggests, a Tripitaka traditionally contains three 'baskets' of teachings: a Sutra Pitaka (Sanskrit; Pali: Sutta Pitaka), a Vinaya Pitaka (Sanskrit & Pali) and an Abhidharma Pitaka (Sanskrit; Pali: Abhidhamma Pitaka).
58.  The greatest development in the kushana period was in the field of
a
  religion
b
 art
c
 literature
d
 architecture
Answer & Explanation
Answer : Option B
Explanation :
The Kushanas were great patrons of art. It was under the rule of the Kushans that principles were formed for making sculptural images, which continued to influence making of sculptures ever after. During this time, Buddha was first shown in human form (earlier he was represented by symbols like lotus and footsteps). Other Hindu and Jain deities also began to be shown in human form. Mathura and Gandhara were the two main centers of art during the time of the Kushanas. The Gandhara School of Art and the Mathura School of Art developed their own distinct styles. The Gandhara School was highly influenced by Greco-Roman philosophies and mainly concentrated on depicting the image of the Buddha and the legends associated with his life, while the Mathura School drew inspiration from local folk deities and themes from day to day life.
59.  Who was the first known Gupta ruler ?
a
  Sri Gupta
b
 Chandragupta I
c
 Ghatotkacha
d
 Kumaragupta I
Answer & Explanation
Answer : Option A
Explanation :
Sri Gupta (240'280) was a pre-imperial Gupta king in northern India and start of the Gupta dynasty. The first evidence of Sri Gupta comes from the writings of I-tsing around 690 CE who describes that the Poona copper inscription of Prabhavati Gupta, a daughter of Chandra Gupta, describes 'Maharaja Sri-Gupta' as the founder of the Gupta dynasty
60.  Which was the only Indus city without a citadel ?
a
  Kalibangan
b
 Harappa
c
 Mohenjodaro
d
 Chanhudaro
Answer & Explanation
Answer : Option D
Explanation :
Excavations at Chanhudaro have revealed three different cultural layers from lowest to the top being Indus culture, the Jhukar culture and the Jhangar culture. The site is especially important for providing evidences about different Harappan factories. These factories produced seals, toys and bone implements. It was the only Harappan city without a citadel.
61.  Ashoka called the Third Buddhist Council at
a
  Pataliputra
b
 Magadha
c
 Kalinga
d
 Sarnath
Answer & Explanation
Answer : Option A
Explanation :
The Third Buddhist council was convened in about 250 BCE at Asokarama in Pataliputra, supposedly under the patronage of Emperor Asoka. The traditional reason for convening the Third Buddhist Council is reported to have been to rid the Sangha of corruption and bogus monks who held heretical views. It was presided over by the Elder Moggaliputta Tissa and one thousand monks participated in the Council.
62.  The tutor of Alexander, the Great was
a
  Darius
b
 Cyrus
c
 Socrates
d
 Aristotle
Answer & Explanation
Answer : Option D
Explanation :
Aristotle was a Greek philosopher and polymath, a student of Plato and teacher of Alexander the Great. Together with Plato and Socrates (Plato's teacher), Aristotle is one of the most important founding figures in Western philosophy. Aristotle's writings were the first to create a comprehensive system of Western philosophy, encompassing morality, aesthetics, logic, science, politics, and metaphysics. Aristotle was invited by Philip II of Macedon to become the tutor to his son Alexander in 343 BC. Aristotle was appointed as the head of the royal academy of Macedon. During that time he gave lessons not only to Alexander, but also to two other future kings: Ptolemy and Cassander. Aristotle encouraged Alexander toward eastern conquest.
63.  Which of the following literary works belongs to classical Sanskrit literature?
a
  Dhammapada
b
 Vedas
c
 Meghadutam
d
 Dighanikaya
Answer & Explanation
Answer : Option C
Explanation :
Meghadutam (cloud messenger) is a lyric poem written by Kalidasa, considered to be one of the greatest Sanskrit poets. In Sanskrit literature, the poetic conceit used in the Meghadutam spawned the genre of sandesha kavya or messenger poems, most of which are modeled on the Meghaduta (and are often written in the Meghaduta's mandakranta metre)
64.  Who propounded the 'Eight-Fold Path' for the end of misery of mankind ?
a
  Mahavir
b
 Gautam Buddha
c
 Adi Shankaracharya
d
 Kabir
Answer & Explanation
Answer : Option B
Explanation :
The Noble Eightfold Path is one of the principal teachings of the Buddha, who described it as the way leading to the cessation of suffering (dukkha) and the achievement of self-awakening. It is used to develop insight into the true nature of phenomena (or reality) and to eradicate greed, hatred, and delusion. The Noble Eightfold Path is the fourth of the Buddha's Four Noble Truths; the first element of the Noble Eightfold Path is, in turn, an understanding of the Four Noble Truths. It is also known as the Middle Path or Middle Way.
65.  The number system 'Zero' was invented by
a
  Ramanujam
b
 Aryabhatta
c
 Patanjali
d
 An unknown person
Answer & Explanation
Answer : Option B
Explanation :
The concept of zero as a number and not merely a symbol for separation is attributed to India, where, by the 9th century AD, practical calculations were carried out using zero, which was treated like any other number, even in case of division. The credit for inventing 'zero (0)' goes to Indian mathematicians and the number zero first appears in a book about 'arithmetic' written by an Indian mathematician 'Brahamagupta'. Zero signifies 'nothing' and the current definition calls it an 'additive identity'. The Indian mathematicians Bhaskara, Mahavira and Brahamagupta worked on this new number and they tried to explain its properties. It wasn't that somebody suddenly came up with the idea of the zero and the mathematicians throughout the world accepted it. Around 500 AD, Aryabhatta, an Indian mathematician, devised a numbers system and the symbol he used for the number zero was also the number used to represent an unknown element (x).
66.  'Charak' was the famous court physician of
a
  Harsha
b
 Chandra Gupta Maurya
c
 Ashoka
d
 Kanishka
Answer & Explanation
Answer : Option D
Explanation :
Charaka was one of the principal contributors to the ancient art and science of Ayurveda, a system of medicine and lifestyle developed in Ancient India. He is referred to as the Father of Medicine. The life and times of Charaka are not known with certainty. Some Indian scholars have stated that Charaka of Charaka Samhita existed before Panini, the grammarian, who is said to have lived before the sixth century B. C. Another school argues that Patanjali wrote a commentary on the medical work of Charaka. They say that if Patanjali lived around 175 B.C., Charaka must have lived some time before him. Another source about the identity of Charaka and his times is provided by the French orientalist Sylvan Levi. He discovered in the Chinese translation of the Buddhist Tripitaka, a person son named Charaka who was a court physician to the Indo Scythian king Kanishka, who in all probability reigned in the second century A.D. From the above discussion, it would seem that Charaka may have lived between the second century B.C. to the second cen- tury A.D
67.  Buddhism made an important impact by allowing two sections of society into its fold. They were
a
  Merchants and Priests
b
 Moneylenders and Slaves
c
 Warriors and Traders
d
 Women and Sudras
Answer & Explanation
Answer : Option D
Explanation :
Buddha was against caste. His religion was open to all, to shudras, women and even repentant criminals. The Buddhist scriptures were available to all men and women. Buddhism encouraged abolition of distinctions in society and strengthened the principle of social equality.
68.  The language used to write source materials in ancient time was
a
  Sanskrit
b
 Pali
c
 Brahmi
d
 Kharosthi
Answer & Explanation
Answer : Option B
Explanation :
Pali is a Middle Indo-Aryan language (of Prakrit group) of the Indian subcontinent. It is best known as the language of many of the earliest extant Buddhist scriptures, as collected in the Pali Canon or Tipitaka, and as the liturgical language of Theravada Buddhism. T. W. Rhys Davids in his book Buddhist India, and Wilhelm Geiger in his book Pali Literature and Language, suggested that Pali may have originated as a form of lingua franca or common language of culture among people who used differing dialects in North India, used at the time of the Buddha and employed by him.
69.  India's trade with the Roman Empire came to an end with the invasion of Rome by the
a
  Arabs
b
 Hungarians
c
 Hunas
d
 Turks
Answer & Explanation
Answer : Option C
Explanation :
Roman trade with India started around the beginning of the Common Era following the reign of Augustus and his conquest of Egypt. Following the RomanPersian Wars Khosrow I of the Persian Sassanian Dynasty captured the areas under the Roman Byzantine Empire. The Arabs, led by 'Amribn al-'As, crossed into Egypt in late 639 or early 640 C.E. That advance marked the beginning of the Islamic conquest of Egypt and the fall of ports such as Alexandria, used to secure trade with India by the Greco Roman world since the Ptolemaic dynasty. The decline in trade saw Southern India turn to Southeast Asia for international trade, where it influenced the native culture to a greater degree than the impressions made on Rome. The Hunas invaded the Roman Empire under Attila the Hun in 454 C.E.
70.  Most of the chola temples were dedicated to
a
  Ganesh
b
 Shiva
c
 Durga
d
 Vishnu
Answer & Explanation
Answer : Option B
Explanation :
Most of the Chola temples were dedicated to Shiva. The great living Chola temples are important Hindu kovils that were built during the 10th-12th centuries in the South India. In all these temples, the chief deity who has been depicted and worshipped is Lord Shiva.
71.  'Bull' in Buddhism is associated with which event of Buddha's life ?
a
  Birth
b
 Great departure
c
 Enlightenment
d
 Mahaparinirvan
Answer & Explanation
Answer : Option A
Explanation :
The five great events in Buddha's life are represented by symbols as under: (a) Birth by Lotus and Bull, (b) Great Renunciation by Horse, (c) Nirvana by Bodhi Tree, (d) First Sermon by Dharmachakra or Wheel and (e) Parinirvana or death by the stupa.
72.  Which of the following would be the most accurate description of the Mauryan Monarchy under Ashoka ?
a
  Enlightened despotism
b
 Centralised autocracy
c
 Oriental despotism
d
 Guided democracy
Answer & Explanation
Answer : Option A
Explanation :
Despotism is a form of government in which a single entity rules with absolute power. However, in enlightened absolutism (also known as benevolent despotism), absolute monarchs used their authority to institute a number of reforms in the political systems and societies of their countries. During Ashoka's reign, the Mauryan Empire was indeed the first attempt in India to secure administrative centralization on an extended scale. Within its framework it united a number of people and tribes. Tha nature of the Mauryan government was enlightened despotism. The centralized monarchy became a paternal despotism under the able guidance of Ashoka.
73.  The illustrious names of Aryabhatta and Varahamihir are associated with the age of the
a
  Guptas
b
 Kushanas
c
 Mauryas
d
 Palas
Answer & Explanation
Answer : Option A
Explanation :
The Gupta Empire was an ancient Indian empire which existed from approximately 320 to 550 CE and covered much of the Indian Subcontinent. Scholars of this period include Varahamihira and Aryabhatta, who is believed to be the first to come up with the concept of zero, postulated the theory that the Earth moves round the Sun, and studied solar and lunar eclipses. The most famous works of Aryabhatta are the Aryabhatiya and the Arya-siddhanta. Varahamihira was an Indian astronomer, mathematician, and astrologer who lived in Ujjain. He is considered to be one of the nine jewels (Navaratnas) of the court of legendary ruler Vikramaditya (thought to be the Gupta emperor Chandragupta II Vikramaditya).
74.  Lothal is a site where dockyards of which of the following civilization were found ?
a
  Indus Valley
b
 Mesoptamian
c
 Egyptian
d
 Persian
Answer & Explanation
Answer : Option A
Explanation :
Lothal is one of the most prominent cities of the ancient Indus valley civilization. Lothal's dock'the world's earliest known, connected the city to an ancient course of the Sabarmati river on the trade route between Harappan cities in Sindh and the peninsula of Saurashtra when the surrounding Kutch desert of today was a part of the Arabian Sea. It was a vital and thriving trade centre in ancient times, with its trade of beads, gems and valuable ornaments reaching the far corners of West Asia and Africa.
75.  'Buddha' means
a
  The Enlightened one
b
 The Religious Preacher
c
 The Genius
d
 The Powerful
Answer & Explanation
Answer : Option A
Explanation :
The word Buddha is a title for the first awakened being in an era. 'Buddha' is also sometimes translated as 'The Enlightened One'. As Gautam fully comprehended the Four Noble Truths and as he arose from the slumbers of ignorance he is called a Buddha. Before His Enlightenment he was a bodhisattva which means one who is aspiring to attain Buddhahood. He was not born a Buddha, but became a Buddha by his own efforts. Every aspirant to Buddhahood passes through the bodhisattva period ' a period comprising many lives over a vast period of time.
76.  Where do you find the temple of Angkor Wat ?
a
  In Thailand
b
 In Malaysia
c
 In Cambodia
d
 In Myanmar
Answer & Explanation
Answer : Option C
Explanation :
The temple of Angor Vat is located in Angkor, Siem Reap Province, in Cambodia. It is the largest Hindu temple complex in the world. The temple was built by King Suryavarman II in the early 12th century in Yasodharapura, the capital of the Khmer Empire, as his state temple and eventual mausoleum. Breaking from the Shaivism tradition of previous kings, Angkor Wat was instead dedicated to Vishnu. As the best-preserved temple at the site, it is the only one to have remained a significant religious centre since its foundation ' first Hindu, dedicated to the god Vishnu, then Buddhist. It has become a symbol of Cambodia, appearing on its national flag, and it is the country's prime attraction for visitors.
77.  Whose achievements are recorded in the Allahabad Pillar inscription ?
a
  Chandra Gupta Maurya
b
 Samudra Gupta
c
 Vikramaditya
d
 Skand Gupta
Answer & Explanation
Answer : Option B
Explanation :
Allahabad Stone Pillar Inscription of Samudra Gupta is writings in stone pillar during the term of King Samudra Gupta located in Allahabad which mentioned events during his tenure in and around his empire. It is one of the most important epigraphic evidences of the Imperial Guptas. Composed by Harisena, it delineates the reign of the Guptas in ancient India. Achievements of different rulers of the Gupta lineage are also mentioned in the Allahabad Pillar Inscription. Harisena was the court poet and minister of Samudragupta.
78.  The essential feature of the Indus Valley Civilisation was
a
  worship of forces of nature
b
 organised city life
c
 pastoral farming
d
 caste society
Answer & Explanation
Answer : Option B
Explanation :
Among all the Bronze Age cultures, the Indus Valley civilization was the most urbanized. A sophisticated and technologically advanced urban culture is evident in the Indus Valley Civilization making them the first urban centres in the region. The quality of municipal town planning suggests the knowledge of urban planning and efficient municipal governments. By 2600 BCE, the Early Harappan communities had been turned into large urban centres. Such urban centres include Harappa, Ganeriwala, MohenjoDaro in modern day Pakistan, and Dholavira, Kalibangan, Rakhigarhi, Rupar, and Lothal in modern day India.
79.  Name the capital of the Pallavas
a
  Kanchi
b
 Vatapi
c
 Trichnapalli
d
 Mahabalipuram
Answer & Explanation
Answer : Option A
Explanation :
Pallavas ruled regions of northern Tamil Nadu and southern Andhra Pradesh between the second to the ninth century CE. Kanchipuram served as the capital city of the Pallava Kingdom from the 4th to the 9th century. It is also known by its former names Kanchiampathi, Conjeevaram, and the nickname 'The City of Thousand Temples'. Kanchipuram was mentioned in the Mahabhasya, written by Patanjali in the 2nd century BC.
80.  The word 'Veda' means
a
  knowledge
b
 wisdom
c
 skill
d
 power
Answer & Explanation
Answer : Option A
Explanation :
The Vedas ('knowledge') are a large body of texts originating in ancient India. Composed in Vedic Sanskrit, the texts constitute the oldest layer of Sanskrit literature and the oldest scriptures of Hinduism. The Vedas are apauruveya ('not of human agency'). They are supposed to have been directly revealed, and thus are called sruti ('what is heard'), distinguishing them from other religious texts, which are called smriti ('what is remembered').
81.  Which metal was first used by the Vedic people ?
a
  Silver
b
 Gold
c
 Iron
d
 Copper
Answer & Explanation
Answer : Option D
Explanation :
The Rig Veda mentions such artisans as the carpenter, the chariot-maker, the weaver, the leather worker, the potter, etc. This indicates that they practiced all these crafts. The term, ayas used for copper or bronze shows that metal working was known. Gold was known as 'hiranya'.
82.  Arabs were defeated in 738 A.D. by
a
  Pratiharas
b
 Rashtrakutas
c
 Palas
d
 Chalukyas
Answer & Explanation
Answer : Option D
Explanation :
The Battle of Rajasthan is a battle (or series of battles) where the Hindu alliance defeated the Arab invaders in 738 CE and removed the Arab invaders and pillagers from the area east of the Indus River and protected whole India. The main Indian kings who contributed to the victory over the Arabs were the north Indian ruler Nagabhata of the Pratihara Dynasty and the south Indian Emperor VikramadityaII of the Chalukya dynasty in the 8th century.
83.  In Mauryan dynasty Kalinga war took place in the year'
a
  260 BC
b
 261 BC
c
 126 BC
d
 232 BC
Answer & Explanation
Answer : Option B
Explanation :
In the Mauryan dynasty, Kalinga war took place in the year 261 BC. The Kalinga war fought between the Mourya Empire under Ashoka the Great and the state of Kalinga (Odisha). It was fought in 262-261 BC. The Kalinga war is one of the major and bloodiest battles in the history of India.
84.  The caves and rock-cut temples at Ellora are
a
  Hindu and Buddhist
b
 Buddhist and Jain
c
 Hindu and Jain
d
 Hindu, Buddhist and Jain
Answer & Explanation
Answer : Option D
Explanation :
Ellora represents the epitome of Indian rock-cut architecture. The 34 'caves' ' actually structures excavated out of the vertical face of the Charanandri hills. Buddhist, Hindu and Jain rock-cut temples and viharas and mathas were built between the 5th century and 10th century. The 12 Buddhist (caves 1' 12), 17 Hindu (caves 13'29) and 5 Jain (caves 30' 34) caves, built in proximity, demonstrate the religious harmony prevalent during this period of Indian history.
85.  The Seven Pagodas of Mahabalipuram are a witness to the art patronised by the
a
  Pallavas
b
 Pandyas
c
 Cholas
d
 Cheras
Answer & Explanation
Answer : Option A
Explanation :
'Seven Pagodas' has served as a nickname for the south Indian city of Mahabalipuram, also called Mamallapuram, since the first European explorers reached it. The phrase 'Seven Pagodas' refers to a myth that has circulated in India, Europe, and other parts of the world for over eleven centuries. Mahabalipuram's Shore Temple, built in the 8th century CE under the reign of Pallava king Narasimhavarman II, stands at the shore of the Bay of Bengal. Legend has it that six other temples once stood with it.
86.  Name the clan Buddha belonged to
a
  Gnathrika
b
 Maurya
c
 Sakya
d
 Kuru
Answer & Explanation
Answer : Option C
Explanation :
Shakya was an ancient tribe (janapada) of the Indian Subcontinent in the 1st millennium BCE. In Buddhist texts the Shakyas, the inhabitants of Shakya janapada, are mentioned as a Kshatriya clan of Gotama gotra. The most famous Shakya was Gautama Buddha, a member of the ruling Gautama clan of Lumbini, who is also known as Shakyamuni Buddha, 'sage of the Shakyas', due to his association with this ancient kingdom. The Puranas mention Shakya as a king of Ikshvaku dynasty
87.  Who was the author of the Kadambari, a great romantic play ?
a
  Banabhatta
b
 Harshavardhana
c
 Baskaravardhana
d
 Bindusara
Answer & Explanation
Answer : Option A
Explanation :
Kadambari is a romantic novel in Sanskrit. It was substantially composed by Banabhatta in the first half of the 7th century, who did not survive to see it through completion. The novel was completed by Banabhatta's son Bhushanabhatta, according to the plan laid out by his late father. It is conventionally divided into Purvabhaga (earlier part) written by Banabhatta, and Uttarabhaga (latter part) by Bhushanabhatta.
88.  During which Gupta King's reign did the Chinese traveller Fa-hien visit India ?
a
  Chandra Gupta I
b
 Samudra Gupta
c
 Chandra Gupta II
d
 Kumara Gupta
Answer & Explanation
Answer : Option C
Explanation :
Chandragupta II The Great (was one of the most powerful emperors of the Gupta empire in northern India. His rule spanned c. 380'413/415 CE, during which the Gupta Empire achieved its zenith, art, architecture, and sculpture flourished, and the cultural development of ancient India reached its climax. Fa Hsien was the first of three great Chinese pilgrims who visited India from the fifth to the seventh centuries CE, in search of knowledge, manuscripts and relics. Faxian arrived during the reign of Chandragupta II and gave a general description of North India at that time. Among the other things, he reported about the absence of capital punishment, the lack of a polltax and land tax. Most citizens did not consume onions, garlic, meat, and wine.
89.  St. Thomas is said to have come to India to propagate Christianity during the reign of the
a
  Cheras
b
 Parthians
c
 Pandyas
d
 Cholas
Answer & Explanation
Answer : Option B
Explanation :
St. Thomas is traditionally believed to have sailed to India in 52AD to spread the Christian faith among the Jews, the Jewish diaspora present in Kerala at the time. He is supposed to have landed at the ancient port of Muziris near Kodungalloor. He then went to Palayoor (near present-day Guruvayoor), which was a Hindu priestly community at that time. He left Palayoor in AD 52 for the southern part of what is now Kerala State, where he established the Ezharappallikal, or 'Seven and Half Churches'. Thomas landed in Cranganoor (Kodungallur, Muziris) and took part in the wedding of Cheraman Perumal and proceeded to the courts of Gondophorus in North India. Gundaphorus was indeed a historical figure and he belonged to the Parthian Dynasty from Takshasila (Taxila).
90.  The people of the Indus Valley Civilization usually built their houses of
a
  Pucca bricks
b
 Stone
c
 Wood
d
 All of the above
Answer & Explanation
Answer : Option A
Explanation :
The Indus Valley Civilization, marked by its remarkable level of urbanization despite being a Bronze Age culture, is noted for its cities built of brick, roadside drainage system, and multistoried houses. Houses were one or two stories high, made of baked brick, with flat roofs, and were just about identical. Each was built around a courtyard, with windows overlooking the courtyard. The outside walls had no windows. Each home had its own private drinking well and its own private bathroom.
91.  Who started the Saka Era and when ?
a
  Kadphises in 58 BC
b
 Rudradaman I in AD 78
c
 Vikramaditya in 58 BC
d
 Kanishka in AD 78
Answer & Explanation
Answer : Option D
Explanation :
Most of what is known about Kanishka derives from Chinese sources, particularly Buddhist writings. When Kanishka came to the throne is uncertain. His accession has been estimated as occurring between his reign is believed to have lasted 23 years. The year 78 marks the beginning of the Saka era, a system of dating that Kanishka might have initiated.
92.  In which state was the Nalanda University located in India?
a
  Bengal
b
 Bihar
c
 Orissa
d
 Uttar Pradesh
Answer & Explanation
Answer : Option B
Explanation :
Nalanda was an ancient center of higher learning in Bihar, India. It was a Buddhist center of learning from the fifth or sixth century CE to 1197 CE. Nalanda flourished between the reign of the Chakraditya (whose identity is uncertain and who might have been either Kumara Gupta I or Kumara Gupta II) and 1197 CE, supported by patronage from the Hindu Gupta rulers as well as Buddhist emperors like Harsha and later emperors from the Pala Empire
93.  Which event brought about a profound change in Ashoka's administrative policy?
a
  The third Buddhist Council
b
 The Kalinga War
c
 His embracing of Buddhism
d
 His sending of missionary to Ceylon
Answer & Explanation
Answer : Option B
Explanation :
Kalinga War was the only major war Ashoka fought after his accession to throne. It is one of the major and bloodiest battles in the history of India. Kalinga put up a stiff resistance, but they were no match for Ashoka's brutal strength. The bloodshed of this war is said to have prompted Ashoka to adopt Buddhism.
94.  The monk who influenced Ashoka to embrace Buddhism was
a
  Vishnu Gupta
b
 Upagupta
c
 Brahma Gupta
d
 Brihadratha
Answer & Explanation
Answer : Option B
Explanation :
Upagupta was a Buddhist monk. According to some stories in the Sanskrit Avadana he was the spiritual teacher of Asoka the great Mauryan emperor. Upagupta's teacher was Sanavasi who was a disciple of Ananda, the Buddha's attendant. Due to the absence of his name in Theravada literature it is assumed that Upagupta was a Sarvadin monk.
95.  Harshvardhana was defeated by
a
  Prabhakaravardhana
b
 Pulakesin II
c
 Narasimhasvarma Pallava
d
 Sasanka
Answer & Explanation
Answer : Option B
Explanation :
In 630 BC, Harshavardhana faced defeat at the hands of Pulakesin II, the Chalukya King of Vatapi, in Northern Karnataka. The defeat resulted in a truce between the two kings, with Harsha accepting River Narmada as the southern boundary for his kingdom.
96.  Which of the following statements about the Guptas is NOT true ?
a
  They ruled mainly over parts of north and central India
b
 Kingship was hereditary and the throne always went to the eldest son
c
 The judicial system was far more developed than in earlier times
d
 Land taxes increased and taxes on trade and commerce decreased
Answer & Explanation
Answer : Option B
Explanation :
Kingship was hereditary. Though succession to the throne was generally decided by law of primogeniture, that is, the eldest son succeeding his father, there were many exceptions to this rule. Sometimes kings were even elected by nobles and councillors. As head of the government, the King was overseer of all administrative activities of his realm. He was the supreme judge, and he usually led his army to the battlefields.
97.  Which of the following was NOT composed by Harshavadhana?
a
  Harshacharita
b
 Ratnavali
c
 Priyadarshika
d
 Nagananda
Answer & Explanation
Answer : Option A
Explanation :
The Harshacharita, is the biography of Indian Emperor Harsha by Banabhatta, also known as Bana, who was a Sanskrit writer of 7th century in India. He was the 'Asthana Kavi', meaning 'Court Poet', of King Harsha.
98.  Which of the following is not one of the animals carved on the Sarnath Pillar ?
a
  Humped Bull
b
 Deer
c
 Elephant
d
 Horse
Answer & Explanation
Answer : Option B
Explanation :
Ashoka built the Sarnath pillar to commemorate the site of the first preaching of Lord Buddha, where he taught the Dharma to five monks. The Lion Capital of Ashoka comprises four lions, standing back to back, mounted on a cylindrical abacus. The abacus features the sculptures of an elephant, a galloping horse, a bull, and a lion, separated by intervening 24-spoked Dharma wheels over a bell-shaped lotus. The four animals in the Sarnath capital are believed to symbolize different phases in Lord Buddha's life. The Elephant is a representation of Queen Maya's conception of Buddha when she saw a white elephant entering her womb in dream. The Bull represents desire during the life of the Buddha as a prince. The Horse symbolizes Buddha's departure from palatial life while the Lion represents the attainment of Nirvana by Lord Buddha.
99.  The 'Kannauj assembly' organised by Harsha was held in honour of
a
  Fa-Hien
b
 Itsing
c
 Hieun-Tsang
d
 Megasthenes
Answer & Explanation
Answer : Option C
Explanation :
The convocation of an assembly at Kannauj was one of the most significant events of the reign of Harsha. The purpose of this assembly was to simplify the doctrines of Mahayanism. This assembly was convened in 643 A.D. It was attended by kings of eighteen countries, 3000 Brahmanas and Jains, 3000 Buddhist monks of Mahayana and Hinayana sects and 1000 Buddhist monks of Nalanda Vihara. The famous Chinese traveler, Hiuen Tsang was also present and presided the assembly.
100.  The first metal used by man was
a
  Aluminium
b
 Copper
c
 Iron
d
 Silver
Answer & Explanation
Answer : Option B
Explanation :
The first two metals to be used widely were gold and copper. The use of copper in antiquity is of more significance than gold as the first tools, implements and weapons were made from copper. From 4,000 to 6,000 BC was the Chalcolithic period which was when copper came into common use. By 3600 BC the first copper smelted artifacts were found in the Nile valley and copper rings, bracelets, chisels were found. By 3000 BC weapons, tools etc. were widely found. Tools and weapons of utilitarian value were now within society, however, only kings and royalty had such tools; it would take another 500 years before they reached the peasants.
101.  Satvahanas minted their coins predominantly in
a
  Lead
b
 Silver
c
 Gold
d
 Copper
Answer & Explanation
Answer : Option A
Explanation :
The Satavahana kings mostly used lead as the material for their coins. Most of their coins are in that metal. Silver coins are very rare. Next to lead they used an alloy of silver and copper, called 'potin'. Many copper coins are also available. Although the Satavahana coins are devoid of any beauty or artistic merit, they constitute a valuable source-material for the dynastic history of the Satavahanas.
102.  The headquarters of the Ghadar Party was at
a
  Karachi
b
 Moscow
c
 Berlin
d
 San Francisco
Answer & Explanation
Answer : Option D
Explanation :
The Ghadar Party, initially the Pacific Coast Hindustan Association, was formed in 1913 in the United States under the leadership of Har Dayal, with Sohan Singh Bhakna as its president. The members of the party were Indian immigrants, largely from Punjab. Many of its members were students at University of California at Berkeley including Dayal, Tarak Nath Das, Maulavi Barkatullah, Kartar Singh Sarabha and V.G. Pingle. The party quickly gained support from Indian expatriates, especially in the United States, Canada and Asia. The party was built around the weekly paper The Ghadar, which carried the caption on the masthead: Angrezi Raj Ka Dushman (an enemy of the British rule). The first issue of The Ghadar was published from San Francisco on November 1, 1913.
103.  Where did Lord Budha breathe his last ?
a
  Bodh Gaye
b
 Sarnath
c
 Kushinagar
d
 Varanasi
Answer & Explanation
Answer : Option C
Explanation :
At the time of the Buddha, Kushinagar was the capital of the Mallas, and the scene of the Buddha's death. The Buddha died of old age, when he was eighty years old. The death was triggered by his body reaction to a dish of wild mushroom.
104.  Fa-hien visited India during the reign of
a
  Chandragupta II
b
 Samudragupta
c
 Ramagupta
d
 Kumaragupta
Answer & Explanation
Answer : Option A
Explanation :
Chandra Gupta II was the third, and most significant of the Gupta kings. During his reign the famous Chinese pilgrim Fa-Hsien visited India and wrote a detailed account of his kingdom. The celebrated Chinese pilgrim was struck with admiration by the famous royal palace and the houses for dispensing charity and medicine at Pataliputra. He speaks highly of the system of government in the Madhya-desa and the benevolence of the people, especially the moneyed classes.
105.  Mention the place where Buddha attained enlighten-ment.
a
  Sarnath
b
 Bodh Gaya
c
 Kapilavastu
d
 Rajgriha
Answer & Explanation
Answer : Option B
Explanation :
Bodh Gaya is a religious site and place of pilgrimage associated with the Mahabodhi Temple Complex in Gaya district in the Indian state of Bihar. It is famous for being the place where Gautama Buddha is said to have obtained Enlightenment (Bodhimandala). According to Buddhist traditions, circa 500 BC Prince Gautama Siddhartha, wandering as an ascetic, reached the sylvan banks of Falgu River, near the city of Gaya. There he sat in meditation under a bodhi tree (Ficus religiosa). After three days and three nights of meditation, Siddharta claimed to have attained enlightenment and insight, and the answers that he had sought.
106.  The Greek ambassador sent to Chandragupta Maurya's Court was :
a
  Kautilya
b
 Seleucus Nicator
c
 Megasthenes
d
 Justin
Answer & Explanation
Answer : Option C
Explanation :
Megasthenes was a Greek ethnographer and explorer in the Hellenistic period, author of the work Indica. He was born in Asia Minor (modern day Turkey) and became an ambassador of Seleucus I of the Seleucid dynasty possibly to Chandragupta Maurya in Pataliputra. Megasthenes' Indica is the first wellknown Western account of India and he is regarded as one of the founders of the study of Indian history in the West. He is also the first foreigner Ambassador to be mentioned in the Indian history.
107.  Hiuen Tsang visited India during the reign of
a
  Chandragupta I
b
 Chandragupta II
c
 Harshavardhana
d
 Rudradaman
Answer & Explanation
Answer : Option C
Explanation :
It was during Harsha's reign that Hiuen Tsang came to India. He has given a vivid description of the social, economic and religious conditions, under the rule of Harsha spoke highly of the king.
108.  Which one of the following was the last Buddhist text produced In India ?
a
  Divya Vandana,
b
 Dohakosa
c
 Vajrachedika
d
 Vamsathapakasini
Answer & Explanation
Answer : Option D
Explanation :
Vamsathapakasini is among the last Buddhist texts produced in India. It gives us information about the origin of the Mauryas.
109.  Arthasastra was written by
a
  Dhanananda
b
 Kautilya
c
 Bimbisara
d
 Pushyamitra
Answer & Explanation
Answer : Option B
Explanation :
The Arthasastra is an ancient Indian treatise on statecraft, economic policy and military strategy which identifies its author by the names 'Kautilya' and 'Vishnaugupta', both names that are traditionally identified with Chanakya (c. 350'283 BC), who was a scholar at Takshashila and the teacher and guardian of Emperor Chandragupta Maurya, the founder of Mauryan Empire. Because of its harsh political pragmatism, the Arthasastra has often been compared to Machiavelli's The Prince.
110.  Worship of Mother Goddess was associated with
a
  Aryan Civilization
b
 Mediterranean Civilization
c
 Indus Valley Civilization
d
 Later Vedic Civilization
Answer & Explanation
Answer : Option C
Explanation :
In view of the large number of figurines found in the Indus valley, some scholars believe that the Harappan people worshipped a Mother goddess symbolizing fertility, a common practice among rural Hindus even today.
111.  Alexander and Porus fought a battle at
a
  Hydaspes
b
 Jhelum
c
 Panipat
d
 Tarain
Answer & Explanation
Answer : Option A
Explanation :
The Battle of the Hydaspes River was fought by Alexander the Great in 326 BC against King Porus of the Hindu Paurava kingdom on the banks of the Hydaspes River (Jhelum River) in the Punjab near Bhera in what is now modern-day Pakistan. The battle resulted in a complete Macedonian victory and the annexation of the Punjab, which lay beyond the confines of the defeated Persian Empire, into the Alexandrian Empire. The battle is historically significant for opening up India for Greek political (Seleucid Empire, Indo-Greeks) and cultural influence (Greco-Buddhist art) which was to continue for many centuries.
112.  Identify the Buddhist Literature from the following :
a
  Tripitakas
b
 Upanishads
c
 Angas
d
 Aranyakas
Answer & Explanation
Answer : Option A
Explanation :
Tripitaka is a traditional term used by various Buddhist sects to describe their various canons of scriptures. As the name suggests, a Tripitaka traditionally contains three 'baskets' of teachings: a Sutra Pitaka, a Vinaya Pitaka and an Abhidharma Pitaka. Tripitaka is the three main categories of texts that make up the Buddhist canon.
113.  Seleucus Nicator was defeated by
a
  Asoka
b
 Chandragupta Maurya
c
 Bindu Sara
d
 Brihadratha
Answer & Explanation
Answer : Option B
Explanation :
Seleucus I Nicator was a leading officer of Alexander the Great's League of Corinth and one of the Diadochi. In the Wars of the Diadochi that took place after Alexander's death, Seleucus established the Seleucid dynasty and the Seleucid Empire. He was defeated by the emperor of India, Chandragupta Maurya and accepted a matrimony alliance for 500 elephants after ceding the territories considered as part of India.
114.  The striking feature of the Indus Valley Civilization was
a
  Urban Civilization
b
 Agrarian Civilization
c
 Mesolithic Civilization
d
 Paleolithic Civilization
Answer & Explanation
Answer : Option A
Explanation :
The most characteristic feature of the Harappan Civilization was its urbanization. The cities show evidence of an advanced sense of planning and organization. The town was extremely well planned. The street ran straight and at right angles to each other following the grid system. The rectangular town planning was unique to the Harappans and was not known in Mesopotamia or Egypt. The streets were very wide and the houses built of burnt bricks lined both sides of the street. In Egypt and Mesopotamia dried or baked bricks were used.
115.  After Alexander's death the Eastern part of his empire came under
a
  Seleucus Nicator
b
 Menander
c
 Rudradaman
d
 Kanishka
Answer & Explanation
Answer : Option A
Explanation :
Seleucus I was a leading officer of Alexander the Great's League of Corinth and one of the Diadochi. In the Wars of the Diadochi that took place after Alexander's death, Seleucus established the Seleucid dynasty and the Seleucid Empire. His kingdom would be one of the last holdouts of Alexander's former empire to Roman rule. They were only outlived by the Ptolemaic Kingdom in Egypt by roughly 34 years.
116.  The early Buddhist scriptures were composed in :
a
  Prakrit texts
b
 Pali texts
c
 Sanskrit texts
d
 Pictographical texts
Answer & Explanation
Answer : Option B
Explanation :
Pali is the language in which the texts of the Theravada school of Buddhism are preserved. The Pali texts are the oldest collection of Buddhist scriptures preserved in the language in which they were written down.
117.  In Mohanjadaro, the largest building is :
a
  the great bath
b
 a granary
c
 the Pillared Hall
d
 a two storeyed house
Answer & Explanation
Answer : Option B
Explanation :
The Great Granary of Harappa was the largest building of the Indus Valley Civilization. It was about 45 meters long and 15 meters wide. It was meant to store food grains. It had lines of circular brick platforms for pounding grain. There were barrack like quarters for workmen. The granary also had smaller halls and corridors. It was used to store surplus food grains. There were two rows of granaries. Each row had six granaries. A similar granary has been found in Mohanjodaro. All the granaries were built close to the river bank so that grains could be easily transported with the help of boats.
118.  The caste system of India was created for :
a
  immobility of labour
b
 recognition of the dignity of labour
c
 economic uplift
d
 occupational division of labour
Answer & Explanation
Answer : Option D
Explanation :
The caste system is a system of division of labour and power in human society. It is a system of social stratification, and a basis for affirmative action. Historically, it defined communities into thousands of endogamous hereditary groups called Jatis. The Jatis were grouped by the Brahmanical texts under the four well-known caste categories (the varnas): viz Brahmins, Kshatriyas, Vaishyas, and Shudras.
119.  Gautama Buddha was born at
a
  Kusinagar
b
 Sarnath
c
 Bodh Gaya
d
 Lumbini
Answer & Explanation
Answer : Option D
Explanation :
Lumbini is a Buddhist pilgrimage site in the Rupandehi district of Nepal. It is the place where Queen Mayadevi gave birth to Siddhartha Gautama, who as the Buddha Gautama founded the Buddhist tradition. The Buddha lived between roughly 563 and 483 BC.
120.  Who was the mother of Mahavira?
a
  Yasoda
b
 Anojja
c
 Chetaka
d
 Devanandi
Answer & Explanation
Answer : Option A
Explanation :
Trishala was the Mother of Mahavira, the 24th Tirthankara of Jainism, and wife of the Jain monarch, Siddartha of Kundgraam. She finds mention in the classical Jain Agamas, the Kalpa sutra, written by Acharya Bhadrabahu (433 357 BC), which is primarily a biography of the Tirthankaras.
121.  Off the following scholars, who was the first to discovr the traces of the Harappan Civilisation?
a
  Sir John Marshall
b
 R. D. Baneji
c
 A. Cunningham
d
 Daya Ram Sahani
Answer & Explanation
Answer : Option C
Explanation :
The ruins of Harrappa were first described in 1842 by Charles Masson in his Narrative of Various Journeys in Balochistan, Afghanistan. In 1856, General Alexander Cunningham, later director general of the archeological survey of northern India, visited Harappa. In 1872'75 Alexander Cunningham published the first Harappan seal. The excavation campaign under Sir John Hubert Marshall in 1921'22 resulted in the discovery of the civilization at Harappa by Sir John Marshall, Rai Bahadur Daya Ram Sahni and Madho Sarup Vats, and at Mohenjo-daro by Rakhal Das Banerjee, E. J. H. MacKay, and Sir John Marshall.
122.  'Monolithic Rathas' of the Pallavas are found at
a
  Kanchipuram
b
 Puri
c
 Mahabalipuram
d
 Agra
Answer & Explanation
Answer : Option C
Explanation :
Mahabalipuram, derived from'Mamallapuram' is the prior and colloquial name of a town in Kancheepuram district in the Indian state of Tamil Nadu, now officially called Mamallapuram. The monuments here are constituted by cave temples, monolithic rathas (chariots), sculpted reliefs and structural temples which are excellent examples of Pallava art.
123.  The paintings of Ajanta depict the stories of
a
  Ramayana
b
 Mahabharta
c
 Jataka
d
 Panchatantra
Answer & Explanation
Answer : Option C
Explanation :
The scenes depicted in the Ajanta paintings are mostly didactic, devotional, and ornamental, with scenes from the Jataka stories of the Buddha's former existences as a bodhisattva), the life of the Gautama Buddha, and those of his veneration. The two most famous individual painted images at Ajanta are the two over-life size figures of the protective bodhisattvas Padmapani and Vajrapani on either side of the entrance to the Buddha shrine on the wall of the rear aisle.
124.  Which is the port-town of Indus valley civilisation?
a
  Kalibangan
b
 Lothal
c
 Ropar
d
 Mohenjodaro
Answer & Explanation
Answer : Option B
Explanation :
Lothal is one of the most prominent cities of the ancient Indus valley civilization. It was the most important port of this civilization and was one of the most important centres of export of beads, unguent vessels, chank shells, ladles and inlays. Lothal engineers accorded high priority to the creation of a dockyard and a warehouse to serve the purposes of naval trade.
125.  Poet Kalidasa lived in the court of
a
  Chandragupta Maurya
b
 Samudragupta
c
 Chandragupta Vikramaditya
d
 Harsha
Answer & Explanation
Answer : Option C
Explanation :
Kalidasa is generally associated with Chandragupta II who was one of the most powerful emperors of the Gupta empire in northern India. It was during his reign that the Gupta Empire achieved its zenith, art, architecture, and sculpture flourished, and the cultural development of ancient India reached its climax. Culturally, the reign of Chandragupta II marked a Golden Age. This is evidenced by later reports of the presence of a circle of poets known as the Nine Gems in his court. The greatest among them was Kalidasa.
126.  Which was the oldest University?
a
  Gandhara
b
 Kanauj
c
 Nalanda
d
 Vaishali
Answer & Explanation
Answer : Option C
Explanation :
Nalanda was an ancient center of higher learning in Bihar which was a religious center of learning from the fifth or sixth century CE to 1197 CE. At its peak, the university attracted scholars and students from as far away as Tibet, China, Greece, and Persia. Nalanda was ransacked and destroyed by an army under Bakhtiyar Khilji in 1193.
127.  Who is called as the 'Second Ashoka'?
a
  Samudra Gupta
b
 Chandra Gupta Maurya
c
 Kanishka
d
 Harshavardhana
Answer & Explanation
Answer : Option C
Explanation :
Kanishka worked for preaching of Buddhism. He spread Buddhism to China, Japan, Central Asia and Tibet; and convened the 4th Buddhist Council at Kundalvana in Kashmir. Due to his works he is often called'Second Asoka'.
128.  The famous Kailasanath Temple at Kanchi was built by'
a
  Mahendravarman I
b
 Narasimhavarman II
c
 Nandivarman II
d
 Dantivarman
Answer & Explanation
Answer : Option B
Explanation :
The Kailasanath temple is the oldest temple of Kanchipuram. It was built by the Pallavas in the early 8th century CE. This temple was built by Pallava King Narasimhavarman II (Rajasimhan), and is also called Rajasimha Pallaveswaram.
129.  Kalibangan is situated in
a
  Uttar Pradesh
b
 Sindh
c
 Rajasthan
d
 Gujarat
Answer & Explanation
Answer : Option C
Explanation :
Kalibangan is a town located on the left or southern banks of the Ghaggar (Ghaggar-Hakra River), identified by some scholars with Sarasvati River in Tehsil Pilibangan, between Suratgarh and Hanumangarh in Hanumangarh district, Rajasthan, near Bikaner. It was a major provincial capital of the Indus Valley Civilization. Kalibangan is distinguished by its unique fire altars and world's earliest attested ploughed field.""
130.  Bindusara sent Asoka to quell the rebellion in'
a
  Swarnagiri
b
 Taxila
c
 Ujjain
d
 Tosali
Answer & Explanation
Answer : Option C
Explanation :
Because of his reputation as a frightening warrior and a heartless general, Ashoka was sent by Bindusara to curb the riots in the Avanti province (Ujjain) of the Mauryan empire. The Buddhist text Divyavadana talks of Ashoka putting down a revolt due to activities of wicked ministers. He was twice to pacify the Taxilans.
131.  Mahabalipuram is an important city that reveals the interest in arts of
a
  Pallavas
b
 Cheras
c
 Pandyas
d
 Chalukyas
Answer & Explanation
Answer : Option A
Explanation :
Mahabalipuram was a 7th century port city of the South Indian dynasty of the Pallavas around 60 km south from the city of Chennai in Tamil Nadu. The name Mamallapuram is believed to have been given after the Pallava king Narasimhavarman I, who took on the epithet Maha-malla (great wrestler), as the favourite sport of the Pallavas was wrestling. It has various historic monuments built largely between the 7th and the 9th centuries, and has been classified as a UNESCO World Heritage Site.
132.  Lord Mahavira died at
a
  Saravana Belagola
b
 Lumbini Garden
c
 Kalugumalai
d
 Pavapuri
Answer & Explanation
Answer : Option D
Explanation :
Pawapuri is a holy site for Jains located in the Nalanda district in Bihar. Around 500 BC, Lord Mahavira, the last of the 24 Tirthankaras achieved Moksha or Nirvana. He was cremated at Pawapuri, also known as Apapuri (the sinless town).
133.  The Indus people knew the use of Weights and Measures, which is proved by the discovery of the seal at'
a
  Kalibangan
b
 Harappa
c
 Chanhudaro
d
 Lothal
Answer & Explanation
Answer : Option B
Explanation :
The people of the Indus Civilization achieved great accuracy in measuring length, mass, and time. They were among the first to develop a system of uniform weights and measures. Their smallest division, which is marked on an ivory scale found in Lothal, was approximately 1.704 mm, the smallest division ever recorded on a scale of the Bronze Age.
134.  Which language was mostly used for the propagation of Buddhism?
a
  Sanskrit
b
 Prakrit
c
 Pali
d
 Sauraseni
Answer & Explanation
Answer : Option C
Explanation :
Pali is a Middle Indo-Aryan language (of Prakrit group) of the Indian subcontinent. It is best known as the language of many of the earliest extant Buddhist scriptures, as collected in the Pali Canon or Tipitaka, and as the liturgical language of Theravada Buddhism. Pali is a literary language of the Prakrit language family and was first written down in Sri Lanka in the first century BCE.
135.  The Hoyasala's capital was
a
  Warangal
b
 Devagiri
c
 Dwarasamudra
d
 Krishnagiri
Answer & Explanation
Answer : Option C
Explanation :
Halebidu (literally ruined city")
136.  Who, among the following, was not a part of the Mauryan dynasty?
a
  Ajatsatru
b
 Bindusara
c
 Chandragupta Maurya
d
 None of these
Answer & Explanation
Answer : Option A
Explanation :
Ajatasatru (491 BC ' c. 461 BC) was a king of the Magadha empire in north India. He was the son of King Bimbisara, the great monarch of Magadha. He was contemporary to Mahavira and Buddha.
137.  Sangam Age is associated with the history of
a
  Benaras
b
 Allahabad
c
 Tamil Nadu
d
 Khajuraho
Answer & Explanation
Answer : Option C
Explanation :
Sangam period is the period in the history of ancient southern India (known as the Tamilakam) spanning from c. 30th century BC to c. 4th century CE. It is named after the famous Sangam academies of poets and scholars centered in the city of Madurai. In old Tamil language, the term Tamilakam referred to the whole of the ancient Tamil-speaking area, corresponding roughly to the present-day Indian states of Tamil Nadu, Kerala, parts of Andhra Pradesh, parts of Karnataka and northern Sri Lanka.
138.  Who was the court poet of Harsha?
a
  Bhani
b
 Ravi Kirti
c
 Banabhatta
d
 Vishnu Sharma
Answer & Explanation
Answer : Option C
Explanation :
Banabhatta was a Sanskrit prose writer and poet of India. He was the Asthana Kavi in the court of King Harshavardhana, who reigned in the years century. 606'647 CE in north India.
139.  Where is the Lingaraja Temple located ?
a
  Madurai
b
 Tiruchendur
c
 Bhubaneswar
d
 Ujjain
Answer & Explanation
Answer : Option C
Explanation :
Lingaraj Temple is a Hindu temple dedicated to Harihara, another name for Shiva and is one of the oldest temples of Bhubaneswar, a revered pilgrimage center and the capital of Odisha. Shiva is here worshipped as Tribhuvaneshwara (Master of three worlds, i.e. Heaven, Earth and Netherworld). His consort is called Bhuvaneshvari. The temple is traditionally believed to be built by the Somavanshi king Jajati Keshari, in 11th century CE.
140.  Who wrote the grammatical work Ashtadhyayi?
a
  Charvaka
b
 Kautilya
c
 Panini
d
 Kapila
Answer & Explanation
Answer : Option C
Explanation :
Panini is known for his Sanskrit grammar, particularly for his formulation of the 3,959 rules of Sanskrit morphology, syntax and semantics in the grammar known as Ashtadhyayi (eight chapters")
141.  Beetapala and Dhiman, the two great artists that India had produced, belonged to the
a
  Pala Age
b
 Gupta Age
c
 Maurya Age
d
 Pathan Age
Answer & Explanation
Answer : Option A
Explanation :
Both Beetapala and Dhiman were the artists during the Pala rule in Bengal who flourished in the 9th century A.D. The artistic centre of gravity was displaced after the decline of the Buddhist kings of Bengal when decadence in the style of Dhiman became apparent.
142.  Buddha gave his first religious message at
a
  Rajagriha
b
 Pataliputra
c
 Gaya
d
 Sarnath
Answer & Explanation
Answer : Option D
Explanation :
Sarnath is the deer park where Gautama Buddha first taught the Dharma, and where the Buddhist Sangha came into existence through the enlightenment of Kondanna. It is located to the north-east of Varanasi, in Uttar Pradesh.
143.  The origins of Indian music could be traced to
a
  Rigvedic Samhita
b
 Yajurvedic Samhita
c
 Samavedic Samhita
d
 Atharvavedic Samhita
Answer & Explanation
Answer : Option C
Explanation :
The Sama Veda is the third of the four Vedas, the ancient core Hindu scriptures, along with the Rig Veda, Yajur Veda, and Atharva Veda which consists of a collection (samhita) of hymns, portions of hymns, and detached verses, all but 75 taken from the Sakala Sakha of the Rigveda, to be sung, using specifically indicated melodies called Samagana, by Udgatar priests at sacrifices. The origins of Indian music is traced from this veda. Samaveda's Upaveda (technical manual) is Gandharva-veda that deals not only with the topics of music but also of dance and theatre.
144.  Who amongst the following is associated with the study of the Harappan Civilisation?
a
  Charles Mason
b
 Cunningham
c
 M. Wheeler
d
 M.S. Vats
Answer & Explanation
Answer : Option D
Explanation :
M.S. Vats' 'Excavations at Harappa,' gives an account of archaeological excavations at Harappa carried out between the years 1920-1921 and 1933-34. M.S. Vats first excavated the Granary
145.  The Gupta era was started by whom?
a
  Ghatotkacha
b
 Srigupta
c
 Chandragupta - 1
d
 Samudragupta
Answer & Explanation
Answer : Option B
Explanation :
The Gupta Empire was an ancient Indian empire which existed from approximately 320 to 550 CE and covered much of the Indian Subcontinent. It was founded by Maharaja Sri Gupta. The first evidence of Sri Gupta comes from the writings of I-tsing around 690 CE who describes that the Poona copper inscription of Prabhavati Gupta, a daughter of Chandra Gupta, describes Maharaja Sri-Gupta" as the founder of the Gupta dynasty."
146.  Which Chola king founded the city of Puhar?
a
  Rajendra Chola
b
 Ellara
c
 Senguttavan
d
 Karikala
Answer & Explanation
Answer : Option D
Explanation :
Karikala was a very popular Chola ruler who founded the city of'Puhar' (Kaveripatnam) in 1st century B.C. Today is a town in the Nagapattinam district in the southern Indian state of Tamil Nadu which for a while served as the capital of the early Chola kings in Tamilakkam.
147.  Which Rashtrakuta ruler built the famous Kailash temple of Siva at Ellora?
a
  Dantidurga
b
 Amoghvarsha - I
c
 Krishan-I
d
 Vatsraja
Answer & Explanation
Answer : Option C
Explanation :
Kailashnath Temple is a famous temple, one of the 34 monasteries and temples, known collectively as the Ellora Caves located at Ellora, Maharashtra. It is designed to recall Mount Kailash, the abode of Lord Shiva. It is a megalith carved out of one single rock. It was built in the 8th century by the Rashtrakuta king Krishna-I.
148.  Which museum houses the largest collection of Kushan sculptures?
a
  Mathura Museum
b
 Bombay Museum
c
 Madras Museum
d
 Delhi Museum
Answer & Explanation
Answer : Option A
Explanation :
The Mathura Museum is famous for ancient sculptures of the Mathura school dating from 3rd century BC to 12th century AD which attained the pinnacle of glory during the reign of Great Kushan and Gupta Emperors. Mathura school represents cultural syncretism between the Classical Greek culture and Buddhism, which developed over a period of close to 1000 years in Central Asia, between the conquests of Alexander the Great in the 4th century BCE, and the Islamic conquests of the 7th century CE.
149.  Mahavira was born in a kshatriya clan by the name of
a
  Shakya
b
 Janatrika
c
 Mallas
d
 Lichhavis
Answer & Explanation
Answer : Option B
Explanation :
Born into the kshatriya (warrior) caste Mahavira's father was chief of the Jnatrika clan, an indigenous oligarchical tribe. Mahavira's tribal affiliation is reflected in one of his later epithets, Nigantha Nataputta, which means literally the naked ascetic of the Jnatrika clan.""
150.  The Virupaksha Temple was built by the
a
  Chalukyas
b
 Pallavas
c
 Vakatakas
d
 Satavahanas
Answer & Explanation
Answer : Option A
Explanation :
The Virupaksha Temple is located in Hampi near Bangalore, in the state of Karnataka in southern India. Virupaksha is a form of Shiva and has other temples dedicated to him. The temple's history is uninterrupted from about the 7th century when it was built by the Chalukyas. Evidence indicates there were additions made to the temple in the late Chalukyan and Hoysala periods, though most of the temple buildings are attributed to the Vijayanagar period.
151.  Taxila was a famous site of
a
  Early Vedic art
b
 Mauryan art
c
 Gandhara art
d
 Gupta art
Answer & Explanation
Answer : Option C
Explanation :
Taxila dates back to the Gandhara period when it was an important Hindu and Buddhist centre, and is still considered a place of religious and historical sanctity in those traditions. Gandhara art was a style of Buddhist visual art that developed in what is now northwestern Pakistan and eastern Afghanistan between the 1st century B.C and the 7th century A.D. The style, of Greco-Roman origin, seems to have flourished largely during the Kushana dynasty
152.  The gold coins were introduced first in India by
a
  The Kushanas
b
 The Greeks
c
 The Sakas
d
 The Parthians
Answer & Explanation
Answer : Option B
Explanation :
The Indo-Greek kings were the first to issue gold coins in India and their coins were special in the sense that each king had his own distinctive coins by which he could be definitely identified. The names of at least thirty Bactrian kings are known with the help of numerous coins, and they help in the reconstruction of the history of the kings. The coins carry legends in Greek and also in Kharosthi and Brahmi.
153.  Which of the following dynasties conquered Sri Lanka and SouthEast Asian countries?
a
  The Pandyas
b
 The Chalukyas
c
 The Cholas
d
 The Rashtrakutas
Answer & Explanation
Answer : Option C
Explanation :
The Chola navy played a vital role in the expansion of the Chola Empire, including the conquest of the Ceylon islands and Sri Vijaya (present day Indonesia), the spread of Hinduism, Dravidian architecture and Dravidian culture to South east Asia and in curbing the piracy in Southeast Asia in the 900 CE. In-scriptions and historical sources assert that the Medieval Chola king Rajendra Chola I sent a naval expedition to Indo-China, the Malay peninsula and the Indonesian archipelago in 1025 in order to subdue the Srivijaya Empire.
154.  The art style which combines Indian and Greek features is called
a
  Sikhara
b
 Verna
c
 Nagara
d
 Gandhara
Answer & Explanation
Answer : Option D
Explanation :
Gandhara art is the style of Buddhist visual art that developed in what is now northwestern Pakistan and eastern Afghanistan between the 1st century B.C and the 7th century A.D. The style, of Greco-Roman origin, seems to have flourished largely during the Kushan dynasty and was contemporaneous with an important but dissimilar school of Kushan art at Mathura.
155.  The Harappans were the earliest people to produce
a
  Seals
b
 Bronze implements
c
 Cotton
d
 Barely
Answer & Explanation
Answer : Option C
Explanation :
The Harappans were the earliest known people to grow cotton. They produced cotton cloth hundreds of years before anyone else. In fact, the Greek word for cotton is sindon, a word derived from Sind which is a part of the Indus Valley Civilization region.
156.  The Megalithic culture (500 B.C. - A.D. 100) brings us to the historical period in South India. The Megaliths used
a
  weapons made of stone
b
 tools & implements made of stone.
c
 graves encircled by big pieces of stones.
d
 articles of daily use made of stone.
Answer & Explanation
Answer : Option C
Explanation :
A megalith is a large stone that has been used to construct a structure or monument, either alone or together with other stones. Many of these, though by no means all, contain human remains, but it is debatable whether use as burial sites was their primary function. Though generally known as dolmens, the correct term accepted by archaeologists is portal tomb..
157.  Chinese pilgrim who visited India during Harsha Vardhan's period was
a
  Fa-hien
b
 I'tsing
c
 Nishka
d
 Hiuen Tsang
Answer & Explanation
Answer : Option D
Explanation :
Hiuen Tsang was a Chinese pilgrim who came to India in the first half of the seventh century A.D. during the time of Harshavardhan in order to visit the places of pilgrimage associated with Buddha. His object was to secure authentic Buddhist scriptures and visit places of Buddhist interest. On returning to China, he put down all his impressions in a book called Siyu-ki or'The Records of the Western World' which proved to be an invaluable source of information to historians about Harsha and the political, social, economic and religious conditions in India during his reign.
158.  Chalukya king Pulakesin-Il was defeated by
a
  Mahendra Varman-I
b
 Narasimha Varman-I
c
 Parameswara Varman-I
d
 Jatila Parantaka
Answer & Explanation
Answer : Option A
Explanation :
Narasimhavarman-I, son of Mahendravarman-I, was a Tamil king of the Pallava dynasty who ruled South India from 630'668 A.D. He avenged his father's defeat at the hands of the Chalukya king, Pulakesin II in the year 642 CE. Narasimhavarman was also known as Mamallan (great wrestler) and Mamallapuram (Mahabalipuram) was named after him. It was during his reign that the Chinese traveller Hieun Tsang visited Kanchipuram.
159.  Greek-Roman Art has found a place in
a
  Ellora
b
 Gandhara
c
 Kalinga
d
 Buddhist Art.
Answer & Explanation
Answer : Option D
Explanation :
Greco-Buddhist art is the artistic manifestation of Greco-Buddhism, a cultural syncretism between the Classical Greek culture and Buddhism, which developed over a period of close to 1000 years in Central Asia, between the conquests of Alexander the Great in the 4th century BCE, and the Islamic conquests of the 7th century CE. Under the Indo-Greeks and then the Kushans, the interaction of Greek and Buddhist culture flourished in the area of Gandhara, in today's northern Pakistan, before spreading further into India, influencing the art of Mathura, and then the Hindu art of the Gupta empire, which was to extend to the rest of South-East Asia.
160.  The Ajanta pantings belong to the
a
  Harappan period
b
 Mauryan period
c
 Buddhist period
d
 Gupta period
Answer & Explanation
Answer : Option D
Explanation :
The Ajanta Caves in Aurangabad district of Maharashtra are about 30 rock-cut Buddhist cave monuments which date from the 2nd century BCE to about 480 or 650 A.D. The caves include paintings and sculptures are masterpieces of Buddhist religious art, with figures of the Buddha and depictions of the Jataka tales. Most of the paintings belong to the VakatakaGupta period.
161.  The Harappans were
a
  rural
b
 urban
c
 nomadic
d
 tribal
Answer & Explanation
Answer : Option B
Explanation :
The Harappan cities were planned to serve these functional, social and economic requirements of their inhabitants. The urbanism of the Harappan civilization is associated with its mature phase. Many scholars have called the Harappan urbanization as'The Urban Revolution', which could not have been possible without the strong central authority, specialized economic organization and socio-cultural unity.
162.  The crop which was not known to Vedic people is
a
  barley
b
 wheat
c
 rice
d
 tobacco
Answer & Explanation
Answer : Option A
Explanation :
Dantidurga (735'756 CE), also known as Dantivarman or Dantidurga II was the founder of the Rashtrakuta Empire of Manyakheta. His capital was based in Gulbarga region of Karnataka. He was succeeded by his uncle Krishna I who extended his kingdom to all of Karnataka.
163.  The Rashtrakuta kingdom was founded by
a
  Dandi Durga (Danti Durga)
b
 Amoghavarsha
c
 Govinda III
d
 Indra III
Answer & Explanation
Answer : Option A
Explanation :
The Indus Valley Civilization was noted for its cities built of brick, roadside drainage system, and multistoried houses. The buildings were made of burnt bricks, which have been preserved even to this day. Sun-dried bricks were used for the foundation of the buildings and the roofs were flat and made of wood.
164.  The paintings in the Ajanta and Ellora caves are indicative of development of art under the
a
  Rashtrakutas
b
 Pallavas
c
 Pandyas
d
 Chalukyas
Answer & Explanation
Answer : Option A
Explanation :
The Ellora caves were patronized mainly by the Chalukya and the Rashtrakuta Dynasty rulers between the middle of sixth century and the eleventh century A.D. Ajanta Caves in Maharashtra are 28-30 rock-cut cave monuments created during the first century BC and 5th century AD, containing paintings and sculptures considered to be masterpieces of both Buddhist religious art and universal pictorial art.
165.  Gupta Dynasty was famous for
a
  art and architecture
b
 imperialism
c
 revenue and land reform
d
 None of these
Answer & Explanation
Answer : Option A
Explanation :
The peace and prosperity created under the leadership of the Guptas enabled the pursuit of scientific and artistic endeavors. This period is called the Golden Age of India and was marked by extensive inventions and discoveries in science, technology, engineering, art, dialectic, literature, logic, mathematics, astronomy, religion and philosophy that crystallized the elements of what is generally known as Hindu culture.
166.  The last Buddhist king who was a great Sanskrit scholar and a writer was
a
  Kanishka
b
 Ashoka
c
 Bimbisara
d
 Harshavardhana
Answer & Explanation
Answer : Option D
Explanation :
Harshavardhana was a good scholar and a noted author. He wrote three plays in Sanskrit namely Ratnavali, Priyadarsika and Nagananda. We can find welldocumented record of his reign in the work of his court poet Banabhatta.
167.  Who built Brihadeshwara Temple at Tanjore ?
a
  Aditya Chola
b
 Raja Raja Chola
c
 Rajendra Chola
d
 Karikala Chola
Answer & Explanation
Answer : Option B
Explanation :
The famous Chola temple built at Tanjavur (Tanjore) is known as the Brihadeshvara temple. It is also called the Rajarajeshwara temple after the name of king Rajaraja who built it in honour of Lord Shiva in about 1009 A.D. It is a tribute and a reflection of the power of its patron Raja Raja Chola I. It remains India's largest temple.
168.  Who among the following foreigners was the first to visit India ?
a
  Hiuen Tsang
b
 Magasthenese
c
 I-Tsing
d
 Fahien
Answer & Explanation
Answer : Option B
Explanation :
Megasthenes was a Greek ethnographer and explorer in the Hellenistic period, author of the work Indica. He became an ambassador of Seleucus I of the Seleucid dynasty possibly to Chandragupta Maurya in Pataliputra, India. Scholars place it before 298 BC, the date of Chandragupta's death. Hiuen Tsang came during the reign of Harshavardhana; while ITsing and Fa Hien came during the Gupta times.
169.  The Third Buddhist Council was patronised by
a
  Kanishka
b
 Ashoka
c
 Mahakashyap Upali
d
 Sabakarni
Answer & Explanation
Answer : Option B
Explanation :
The Third Buddhist council was convened in about 250 BCE at Asokarama in Pataliputra, supposedly under the patronage of Emperor Asoka. It was presided over by the Elder Moggaliputta Tissa and one thousand monks participated in the Council. The council is recognized and known to both the Theravada and Mahayana schools, though its importance is central only to the Theravada school.
170.  Carving in the famous Ajanta caves was first started during the reign of the
a
  Kadambas
b
 Satavahanas
c
 Rashtrakutas
d
 Marathas
Answer & Explanation
Answer : Option B
Explanation :
The earlier phase of Ajanta falls between third century BCE to second century BC. In this phase, just five caves were excavated: Caves 9, 10, 12, 13 and 15A. The region during this time was ruled by the Satavahana dynasty (230 BC ' c. 220 A.D). Therefore, they may be called the Satavahana-period caves. This phase is also widely known as the Hinayana phase.
171.  The official court language of the Guptas was
a
  Pali
b
 Prakrit
c
 Hindi
d
 Sanskrit
Answer & Explanation
Answer : Option D
Explanation :
The Sanskrit language, once ignored under the Buddhist and Jain influence, was patronised during the Gupta period. It was recognised as the court language and was used in their inscriptions. Gradually it became the lingua franca of India. Some of the wellknown scholars who flourished during this period were: Kalidasa, Vishakhadutta, Shudraka, Bharavi, Dandin, Subandhu, etc.
172.  Which of the following option is match?
a
  Alora - Shakas
b
 Mahabalipuram- Rashtrakuta
c
 Meenakshi Temple -Pallavas
d
 Khjuraho - Chandelas
Answer & Explanation
Answer : Option D
Explanation :
Khajuraho was the cultural capital of Chandel Rajputs, a Hindu dynasty that ruled this part of India from the 10-12th centuries. The political capital of the Chandelas was Kalinjar. The Khajuraho temples were built over a span of 200 years, from 950 to 1150. The Chandela capital was moved to Mahoba after this time, but Khajuraho continued to flourish for some time. Khajuraho has no forts because the Chandel Kings never lived in their cultural capital.
173.  The most distinguished ruler of the Chalukyan dynasty was
a
  Jayasimha II
b
 Vikramaditya VI
c
 Somesvara II
d
 Pulakesin II
Answer & Explanation
Answer : Option D
Explanation :
Pulakesin-II was the most famous ruler of the Chalukya dynasty. In his reign the Chalukyas of Badami saw their kingdom extend over most of the Deccan. Pulikeshi-II routed the Pallava king Mahendravarman-I in the battle of Pullalur. In a decisive battle fought on the banks of the river Narmada, Pulakesin defeated Harshavardhana.
174.  'Harsha Charita' was written by
a
  Kalidasa
b
 Banabhatta
c
 Valmiki
d
 Vyasa
Answer & Explanation
Answer : Option B
Explanation :
The Harshacharita, is the biography of Indian Emperor Harsha by Banabhatta, also known as Bana, who was a Sanskrit writer of 7th century in India. He was the'Asthana Kavi', meaning'Court Poet', of King Harsha.
175.  The capital of Kanishka was :
a
  Purushapura
b
 Benares
c
 Allahabad
d
 Sarnath
Answer & Explanation
Answer : Option A
Explanation :
The Kushan king Kanishka, who reigned from at least 127 AD, moved the capital from Pushkalavati (now called Charsadda in the Peshawar valley) to Purushapura (Peshawar) in the 2nd century AD. Following this move by the Kushans, Peshawar became a great center of Buddhist learning even though Zoroastrianism, Hindusim and animism seem to have survived in the majority population.
176.  In which language were the Buddhist-texts 'Pitakas' composed ?
a
  Sanskrit
b
 Ardhamagadhi
c
 Pali
d
 Prakrit
Answer & Explanation
Answer : Option C
Explanation :
Tripitaka is the collection of the teachings of the Buddha over 45 years in the Pali language, and it consists of Sutta conventional teaching, Vinaya disciplinary code, and Abhidhamma moral psychology. Tripitaka is the main categories of texts that make up the Buddhist canon.
177.  Who was called India's Napoleon because of his victories ?
a
  Skandagupta
b
 Chandragupta
c
 Brahmagupta
d
 Samudragupta
Answer & Explanation
Answer : Option D
Explanation :
Samudragupta, ruler of the Gupta Empire, and successor to Chandragupta-I, is considered to be one of the greatest military geniuses in Indian history according to Historian V. A. Smith. He was called the Napoleon of India because he wanted to conquer more and more.
178.  Buddhism in Nepal was introduced during the reign of
a
  Samudragupta
b
 Ashoka
c
 Chandragupta
d
 Harshavardhana
Answer & Explanation
Answer : Option B
Explanation :
As a Buddhist emperor, Ashoka sent many prominent Buddhist monks (bhikshus) Sthaviras like Madhyamik Sthavira to modern Kashmir and Afghanistan; Maharaskshit Sthavira to Syria, Persia / Iran, Egypt, Greece, Italy and Turkey; and Massim Sthavira to Nepal. He built a number of stupas, Sangharama, viharas, chaitya, and residences for Buddhist monks all over South Asia and Central Asia. The Asokan pillar at Lumbini, Nepal speaks about Asoka and his works.
179.  The Pallavas ruled from
a
  Kanchipuram
b
 Madurai
c
 Tanjore
d
 Tiruchendur
Answer & Explanation
Answer : Option A
Explanation :
The Pallavas ruled regions of northern Tamil Nadu and southern Andhra Pradesh between the second to the ninth century A.D. Their capital was Kanchipuram. Located on the banks of river Vegavathy, it served as the capital city of the Pallava Kingdom during the 4th to 9th century A.D.
180.  The Gandhara style of sculpture, during the Kushan period is a combination of
a
  Indo-Islamic style
b
 Indo-Persian style
c
 Indo-China style
d
 Indo-Greek style
Answer & Explanation
Answer : Option D
Explanation :
Gandhara sculpture was an amalgamation of IndoGreek styles. The distinguishing Gandhara sculpture is the standing or seated Buddha. The western classical factor rests in the style, in the handling of the robe, and in the physiognomy of Buddha. The cloak, which covers all but the appendages is dealt like in Greek and Roman sculptures.
181.  The greatest Kushan leader who got converted to Buddhism was
a
  Kujala
b
 Vima
c
 Kanishka
d
 Kadphises
Answer & Explanation
Answer : Option C
Explanation :
Kanishka's reputation in Buddhist tradition is based mainly that he convened the 4th Buddhist Council in Kashmir. Images of the Buddha based on 32 physical signs were made during his time. He provided encouragement to both the Gandhara school of GrecoBuddhist Art and the Mathura school of Hindu art. Kanishka personally seems to have embraced both Buddhism and the Persian cult of Mithra.
182.  The Gupta king who assumed the title of 'Vikramaditya' was
a
  Skandagupta
b
 Samudragupta
c
 Chandragupta-II
d
 Kumaragupta
Answer & Explanation
Answer : Option C
Explanation :
Chandragupta-II was one of the most powerful emperors of the Gupta empire in northern India. His rule spanned c. 380'413/415 A.D, during which the Gupta Empire achieved its zenith, art, architecture, and sculpture flourished, and the cultural development of ancient India reached its climax. He adopted the title of Vikramaditya which holds a semi-mythical status in India.
183.  Which ruler murdered his father, Bimbisara to ascend the throne ?
a
  Ashoka
b
 Ajatasatru
c
 Kanishka
d
 Simukha
Answer & Explanation
Answer : Option B
Explanation :
Ajatasatru was a king of the Magadha empire in north India. He was the son of King Bimbisara, the great monarch of Magadha. He was contemporary to Mahavira and Buddha. According to the Jain tradition Bimbisara committed suicide while according to Buddhist tradition he was brutally murdered by his own son.
184.  Which ruler founded the famous Vikramshila University for the Buddhists ?
a
  Mahipala
b
 Devapala
c
 Gopala
d
 Dharampala
Answer & Explanation
Answer : Option D
Explanation :
The Vikramasila University was one of the two most important centers of Buddhist learning in India during the Pala dynasty, along with Nalanda University. It was established by King Dharmapala (783 to 820) in response to a supposed decline in the quality of scholarship at Nalanda. Atisha, the renowned pandita, is sometimes listed as a notable abbot.
185.  A great astronomer and mathematician during the Gupta period was
a
  Bhanugupta
b
 Vagabhatta
c
 Aryabhatta
d
 Varahamihira
Answer & Explanation
Answer : Option C
Explanation :
Aryabhatta was the first in the line of great mathematician-astronomers from the classical age of Indian mathematics and Indian astronomy who belonged to the Gupta era. His period was 476'550 A.D. His most famous works are the Aryabhatiya (499 A.D) and the Arya-Siddhanta.
186.  Which of the following Gupta kings stopped the Huns from invading India?
a
  Kumaragupta
b
 Samudragupta
c
 Skandagupta
d
 Chandragupta
Answer & Explanation
Answer : Option C
Explanation :
Skandagupta was a Gupta Emperor of northern India. He is generally considered the last of the great Gupta Emperors who faced some of the greatest challenges in the annals of the empire having to contend with the Pushyamitras and the Hunas (a name by which the White Huns" were known in India). He crushed the Hun invasion in 455
187.  Alexander and the army of Porus camped on the opposite banks of this river
a
  Ravi
b
 Jhelum
c
 Sutlej
d
 Chenab
Answer & Explanation
Answer : Option B
Explanation :
The Battle of the Hydaspes River was fought by Alexander the Great in 326 BC against King Porus of the Hindu Paurava kingdom on the banks of the Hydaspes River (Jhelum River) in the Punjab. The battle resulted in a complete Macedonian victory and the annexation of the Punjab. The battle is historically significant for opening up India for Greek political (Seleucid Empire, Indo-Greeks) and cultural influence (Greco-Buddhist art) which was to continue for many centuries.
188.  Who were the first to issue gold coins in India?
a
  Kushans
b
 Tatars
c
 Mughals
d
 Aryans
Answer & Explanation
Answer : Option A
Explanation :
The Indo-Greek kings were the first to issue gold coins in India and their coins were special in the sense that each king had his own distinctive coins by which he could be definitely identified. However, some scholars contend that this credit should go to the Khushan kings. Vima Kadphises is said to be the first to introduce gold coinage in India, in addition to the existing copper and silver coinage.
189.  Who among the following were the first to invade India?
a
  Afghans
b
 Mongols
c
 Arabs
d
 Turks
Answer & Explanation
Answer : Option C
Explanation :
The advent of Muslims in India was marked by the Arab conquest of Sind, though long before that the Arabs already had settlements on the western coast of India. Muhammad Bin Qasim, under the order of Hajjaj, advanced in 710 A.D., at the head of a considerable army, subdued Mukran, pushed on through Baluchistan and in 711-12 reduced Sind, the lower valley and delta of the Indus.
190.  Who amidst the following was a wife of emperor Ashoka who influenced him?
a
  Chandalika
b
 Charulata
c
 Gautami
d
 Karuwaki
Answer & Explanation
Answer : Option D
Explanation :
Maharani Kaurwaki was Empress consort of the Maurya Empire as the first wife of Emperor Ashoka. Legends says that Kaurwaki was the daughter of a fisher man. It is said that she led an army of females against Ashoka in Kalinga after Kalinga had no males left to defend it.
191.  The famous Kailasa temple cut out of the solid rock at Ellora was built under the patronage of the
a
  Cholas
b
 Kadambas
c
 Pallavas
d
 Rashtrakutas
Answer & Explanation
Answer : Option D
Explanation :
Kailashnath Temple is a famous temple, one of the 34 monasteries and temples, known collectively as the Ellora Caves which was built in the 8th century by the Rashtrakuta king Krishna-I.
192.  'Purushapura' is the other name for
a
  Patna
b
 Pataliputra
c
 Peshawar
d
 Punjab
Answer & Explanation
Answer : Option C
Explanation :
The Kushan king Kanishka , moved the capital from Pushkalavati to Purushapura (Peshawar) in the 2nd century AD. Following this move by the Kushans, Peshawar became a great center of Buddhist learning.
193.  Which of the following was the capital of the Chola Kings?
a
  Kanchi
b
 Tanjore
c
 Madurai
d
 Trichirapally
Answer & Explanation
Answer : Option B
Explanation :
Thanjavur, formerly Tanjore, first rose to prominence during the reign of the Medieval Cholas when it served as the capital of the Chola empire. After the fall of the Cholas, the city was ruled by various dynasties like Pandyas, Vijayanagar Empire, Madurai Nayaks, Thanjavur Nayaks, Thanjavur Marathas and the British.
194.  'Tripitaka' is the religious book of
a
  Jains
b
 Buddhists
c
 Sikhs
d
 Hindus
Answer & Explanation
Answer : Option B
Explanation :
Tripitaka is the three main categories of texts that make up the Buddhist canon. As the name suggests, a Tripitaka traditionally contains three baskets" of teachings: a Sutra Pitaka
195.  Which of the following materials was mainly used in the manufacture of Harappan seals?
a
  Terracota
b
 Bronze
c
 Copper
d
 Iron
Answer & Explanation
Answer : Option A
Explanation :
Seals are an impressive part of surviving art of Harappan culture. Of these the great majority have animals engraved on them and a short inscription. They are mainly made of terracotta which is a type of earthenware, or clay-based unglazed or glazed ceramic, where the fired body is porous.
196.  The capital of Pallavas was
a
  Arcot
b
 Kanchi
c
 Malkhed
d
 Banavasi
Answer & Explanation
Answer : Option B
Explanation :
Located on the banks of river Vegavathy, Kanchipuram served as the capital city of the Pallava Kingdom during the 4th to 9th century A.D.
197.  Who defeated Harshavardhan on the banks of Narmada ?
a
  Pulakesin I
b
 Pulakesin II
c
 Vikramaditya
d
 Nandivarman
Answer & Explanation
Answer : Option B
Explanation :
Harsha's ambition of extending his power to the Deccan and Southern India were stopped by the great Chalukya Emperor of South India Pulakeshini-II, the Chalukya king of Vatapi in Northern Karnataka along the banks of river Narmada. Pulakeshi defeated Harsha's army on the banks of the river Narmada in 620. A truce was agreed upon and the river Narmada was marked as the southern boundary of Harsha's kingdom.
198.  During whose reign did the Gandhara School of Art blossom ?
a
  Harsha
b
 Ashok
c
 Kanishka
d
 Chandragupta II
Answer & Explanation
Answer : Option C
Explanation :
The Kushan period is considered the Golden Period of Gandhara. Peshawar Valley and Taxila are littered with ruins of stupas and monasteries of this period. Gandharan art flourished and produced some of the best pieces of Indian sculpture. Many monuments were created to commemorate the Jataka tales. The Gandhara civilization peaked during the reign of the great Kushan king Kanishka (128'151). The cities of Taxila (Takshasila) at Sirsukh and Peshawar were built.
199.  Both Jainism and Buddhism had no faith in
a
  yajnas
b
 salvation
c
 caste system
d
 rituals
Answer & Explanation
Answer : Option A
Explanation :
Jainism and Buddhism arose us a protest against the ritualism of the Hindu religion. Gautam Buddha and Vardhaman Mahavir both belonged to ruling families of Kshatriyas. Buddhism, as well as, Jainism had no faith in Vedic religion. Besides, both these heterodox sects had no faith in caste distinctions and opposed the caste-system vehemently.
200.  The Gupta Saka was founded by
a
  Chandra Gupta, the First
b
 Chandra Gupta, the Second
c
 Samudra Gupta
d
 Kumara Gupta
Answer & Explanation
Answer : Option A
Explanation :
Chandra Gupta was a major king in the Gupta Empire around 320 C.E. and is generally considered as the founder of the Gupta dynasty. As the ruler of the Gupta Empire, he is known for forging alliances with many powerful families in the Ganges region. The well known Gupta era which commenced on February 26, 320 AD is generally attributed to Chandragupta I. Hence it is surmised that the Gupta era began on the occasion of the coronation of Chandragupta I.